The 11 Best Websites to Learn Forex Trading [2020]

[Event] Ethiopia Expands Efforts to Survey Hydrocarbon Resources

October 2022
East Africa is quickly emerging as one of the premier destinations for oil and natural gas exploration, with numerous foreign companies engaged in exploratory and extractive ventures in countries like Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Tanzania, Mozabique, and Uganda. This new boom in the oil industry, driven by growing global demands and new investments from rising powers like China, has already made several significant oil discoveries, including the 560 million barrel oil find in Turkana, Kenya.
So far, Ethiopia's own share of this East African hydrocarbon rush has been something of a mixed bag. Early speculation regarding Ethiopia's oil reserves--which suggested that the country may have some 2.7 billion barrels of oil hidden away in its southern provinces--has so far failed to materialize into concrete finds, with Tullow Oil (the firm responsible for the Turkana find) failing to find any productive wells in the South Omo Block. Tullow remained in Africa until 2018, when it and partner Africa Oil began the process of withdrawing their operations in the South Omo Block. For a time, it seemed like the promise of hydrocarbon reserves in Ethiopia was dead, with investors looking to proven exploration markets in Uganda and Kenya instead.
And then, payday. In 2018/19, Chinese oil and gas firm Poly-GCL announced the discovery of some 7 to 8 trillion cubic feet of natural gas at the Calub and Hilala gas fields in Blocks 11 and 15, which was quickly followed by British firm NewAGE's discovery of 1.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas near Elkuran in Block 8. These discoveries, amounting to some 272km3 of gas and a smaller quantity of oil, were significant not just for their size (between these two discoveries alone, Ethiopia gained enough natural gas reserves to surpass current gas exporters like Israel, Bangladesh, and Brunei), but as proof that there were hydrocarbon resources in Ethiopia (which drew attention from firms that previously had not invested in exploration in Ethiopia, including oil giant Chevron in late 2019. Ethiopia and Djibouti immediately teamed up to build a 760km+ pipeline connecting these gas fields in the Ogaden basin to the Red Sea. Revenues from the export of natural gas, which started in 2022 with the completion of the pipeline, are expected to amount to some 1b USD annually (increasing as more projects are drilled), bringing a critical influx of FOREX to the Ethiopian government.
With the first exports of Ethiopian hydrocarbon reaching international markets, and with historic oil finds in neighboring Eritrea, Ethiopia is hoping to leverage the possibility of further finds to attract additional investment into its hydrocarbon sector. At present, Ethiopia has several concession blocks that still lack investment, which the government is hoping to rectify by offering exploration rights to international hydrocarbon firms.
South Omo Block
With Tullow's withdrawal from Ethiopia in 2019 after failing to renew their license, the oil concession for the South Omo Block is once again up for licensing. Located in southern Ethiopia along the South Sudan and Kenya borders, the South Omo Block is a geological continuation of the Turkana basin and other major East African hydrocarbon blocks, leading many to speculate that it may share in some of that oil wealth. While the initial estimates that the block may hold up to 2.7 billion barrels of oil seem to have been overstated, if the block contains even a fraction of that amount, it would still be considerably valuable for whomever takes the block.
The Poly-GCL Blocks
Chinese firm Poly-GCL is easily the largest hydrocarbon operator in Ethiopia, owning the extraction rights for the bulk of the new discoveries (7-8 TCF of the total 9.6 TCF). With their ten total exploration blocks in the Ogaden basin, they also have the greatest presence in the region. However, only two of the ten blocks under the license have been properly explored, with the remaining eight awaiting further exploration. Ethiopia is hoping to reach out to Poly-GCL to persuade them to begin exploration activities in the remaining eight (as well as any other blocks they feel like leasing), with the goal of discovering my natural gas or oil.
The Remaining Ogaden Basin Blocks
Out of the 21 blocks in the Ogaden Basin (the site of the most recent natural gas finds), seven are still unlicensed and more or less unexplored, Blocks 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 10, and 14. Ethiopia hopes to attract foreign firms to begin exploration in these blocks. They are more likely to contain natural gas than oil, as indicated by the discovery of natural gas in blocks 7, 11, and 15, but natural gas is still valuable and desirable.
Adigala Block
The Adigala Block is viewed as an extension of the oil-bearing geological formations of Somaliland, which oil exploration firm Genel anticipates to contain at least 2 billion barrels of oil. Genel previously expressed interest in moving into the Adigala Block, but as of 2019, it was NewAGE, the same firm that made the Elkuran find in Block 8, that entered into license negotiations with the Ethiopian government.
Ethiopia is hoping to finalize license negotiations for the Adigala Block, which Ethiopia hopes will contain some amount of oil, similar to the neighboring oil seeps in Somalia.
Amhara Blocks
The blocks in Amhara state are some of the least explored in the country. Neighboring blocks AB1, AB4, and AB7, operated by Falcon, reported some crude oil finds around 2018, which Ethiopia is hoping will attract additional exploration and investment in the remaining six blocks of the region.
North West Oil Shale
The Ethiopia-Eritrea border is home to some 3.9 billion tons of oil shale--enough to produce a staggering trillion barrels of oil, if it can ever be economically extracted. So far, there has been very little investigation into the viability of these resources, owing to low oil prices in the world. However, with production costs set to continue dropping over the foreseeable future with technological advances in extraction, and with Ethiopia's demand for oil set to grow astronomically as the country's economic development continues, Ethiopia is hoping that some segment of this oil shale can be economically developed. As such, Ethiopia has invited oil shale leaders from around the world, most notably Canadian, Chinese, Estonian, and American firms, to invest in oil shale extraction in northern Ethiopia.
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Weekly Update: Blink-and-you-miss Parena, CyberFM suspends On-Air Ads, Intellishare withdrawal announcement, BitForex + Mycro.. – 20 Mar - 26 Mar'20

Weekly Update: Blink-and-you-miss Parena, CyberFM suspends On-Air Ads, Intellishare withdrawal announcement, BitForex + Mycro.. – 20 Mar - 26 Mar'20
Heyo folks! Want to get off the COVID-19 news cycle? Hop onto the Parachute express. Here’s your week at Parachute + partners (20 Mar - 26 Mar'20):

Doc Vic hosted a CoD Mobile Battle Royale in the Parachute War Zone while Alejandro hosted a gun mode flash game followed by a free for all flash game. The PAR4PAR raffle continues too. Get on in the action to win some cool $PAR just for HODLing. Afful held a trivia in TTR for 1k $PAR in prizes per question. While Gamerboy’s history trivia in tiproom was a ton of fun, Charlotte’s math quiz bamboozled everyone. Foo held a blink-and-you-miss Parena this week. Gian’s Two-for-Tuesday was a welcome respite in these testing times with Parachuters invited to post music from their home countries. Sebastian, like always, was a Godsend for setting up a playlist of all the posts. For #wholesomewed, Parachuters looked for "the most ridiculous item for sale of Amazon". Haha!
The wackiest #wholesomewed entries from Streamr, Franklin and Christian (L-R)
Click here to watch this week’s aXpire update video. For the weekly token burn, 20k $AXPR was sent to the Ethereum Genesis Address. 2gether has observed a 236% rise in crypto purchases during the COVID-19 crisis period. Results of these findings were published on Cointelegraph as well as shared in a video by YouTuber Tiziano Tridico. Bounty0x Telegram community members were in for a treat this week. The project partnered with Unstoppable Domains to offer a free .crypto domain to everybody who followed the instructions here. Switch published their latest product update this week. Click here to read about Fantom’s views on regulations and expansion plans in Korea. The latest technical update was published as well. Following the project’s partnership with Band Protocol which was announced last week, the two teams got together for an AMA this week. Plus, congrats on reaching 1Bn staked $FTM! A brand new API was released so that it could keep up with the chain followed by the release of its chain explorer – Fantom Vision. Uptrennd founder Jeff Kirdeikis hosted a community AMA to take feedback on how to improve the platform. Jeff also wrote about the markets and how they have affected Uptrennd amidst the COVID-19 situation. And congrats on the merch shop. Get your Uptrennd gear, folks! Digibyte won the public vote which started last week to select a project for a free free review + marketing package from Uptrennd. The report will be published next week. Entries for the Article of the Month contest ended this week with a public vote to adjudge the best. CyberFM suspended all On-Air advertising this week to be replaced by public service announcements and free advertising for small local businesses.
That is a big jump indeed
Harmony’s #pow thread is a detailed summry of the individual-level work of all team members over the last week. The weekly video digest can be seen here. The crew also conducted a meetup over Zoom this week. Validators, delegators and stakers have their own chat room now as well. The winners of the $ONE trading competition on ViteX started few weeks back were announced this week. Privacy protocol Suterusu partnered with Harmony to add new privacy features to the $ONE blockchain. $ONE got listed on SimpleSwap. Mainnet swap was completed on HitBTC. Did you know it would less than a minute to recover your node after a network hard reset? Check out this video to see for yourself. Plus, a demo of how cheap a transaction can be showed you could do almost a thousand transactions with 1 $ONE. The project also joined hands with several other blockchain companies to contribute computing power for COVID-19 research through BOINC Network. Intellishare announced a deadline (24 Apr’20) with withdraw all funds from their website to prepare for an upgrade. GET Protocol CEO Maarten Bloemers wrote penned his thoughts on the present COVID-19 crisis and how the platform is coping with it. Despite the lockdown, the team’s “spirits” continue to remain high. Get it, get it? Haha. As the Q1 2020 burn report gets close, the community got together to guess the burn amount to win some cool $GET tokens. THE $COTI top management were invited by Cardano this week to talk about payment networks. Following the claim reward option released last week, the unstake option was also made available to stakers on the mainnet wallet starting this week. A new upgrade was made to the transaction distribution algorithm to ensure fair chance to all participating nodes in the network. For the latest project status report, click here. Plus, congratulations on the new funding round. $ETH HODLers, you might want to check your wallets. DoYourTip airdropped 20 $DYT tokens to each wallet that held some ParJar supported tokens this week.
New unstake option in the COTI mainnet wallet
This week’s District0x Dapp Digest had former professional basketball player and founder of DAOhub Auryn Macmillan as an interviewee. The District Weekly covers the last 7 days in the District0xverse. Hydrogen announced an integration with KYC provider Trulioo this week. The project was also mentioned in a Forbes article listing fintechs that were offering free technology in the COVID-19 crisis. Thinking of building a fintech app? The crew explained what it takes to make one in their latest blog post. Crypto chartist Stacking USD announced a partnership with Sentivate where he will be creating curated $SNTVT-focused content. Still haven’t seen Sentivate’s social site? Check out the FAQs to learn more. BitForex partnered with Mycro to have their latest campaign on the Mycro Hunter App. SelfKey joined Blockfolio Signal this week. This allows them to share project updates as notifications with Blockfolio users. How could COVID-19 affect your data security? Read all about it in SelfKey’s latest blog post. Plus, tips for WFH (Work From Home) during the lockdown. WhiteBIT was added to the exchange marketplace this week. The team also answered some FAQs on the $KEY token and tokenomics. Additionally, the team wrote about how China’s Social Credit System would mean for the digital identity ecosystem. KuCoin announced support for Constellation’s $DAG mainnet swap. CEO Ben Jorgensen also shared some updates on the swap and onboarding node operators. Owing to the COVID-19 lockdowns, Wibson crew attended this week’s Ethereum Buenos Aires meetup on Zoom.

And with that, it’s a close for this week at Parachute! See you again with another update. Bye for now!
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The Bitcoin Evolution System Review – How to Sign Up

Robotized and Manual Trading

One of the most testing parts of exchanging for the two amateurs and experienced merchants is managing one's own feelings which could make numerous brokers overcompensate to advertise vacillations. This can at last lead to noteworthy misfortunes and in numerous occasions, bring about losing the entirety of one's contributed capital.

Be that as it may, BitcoinEvolution's robotized exchanging signals removes one's feelings from the condition which means going great for predictable and beneficial exchanging choices.

After actualizing an exchange signal, the BitcoinEvolution programming will start settling on choices to purchase and sell cryptographic forms of money dependent on exchanging parameters which have been introduced into the client's exchanging account. This implies financial specialists don't need to sit before the PC screen watching outlines for a considerable length of time.

Moreover, merchants utilizing BitcoinEvolution calculations don't need to stress over passing up on any chances even in an unpredictable and quick moving business sector. The BitcoinEvolution calculation has a period jump of 0.01 seconds.

This implies the calculation is equipped for finishing a market investigation and consequently executing an exchange before the market even starts to move.

No manual broker would have the option to approach that.

Likewise, the Bitcoin Evolution System doesn't work at a similar speed as BitcoinEvolution.

Since it takes the Bitcoin Evolution System longer to dissect advertise developments, numerous possibly gainful exchanging openings are frequently lost.

BitcoinEvolution investigations the business sectors at a fast speed and with unimaginable precision. This can be particularly helpful for those exchanging on littler time allotments where the business sectors will in general move rapidly and with essentially raised degrees of instability.

Precise Trading Signals

During client tests, BitcoinEvolution's different mechanized exchanging signals were reliably gainful in all cases. This implies financial specialists can rest serenely knowing their danger of misfortune has been limited. Maybe the best piece of BitcoinEvolution's precise mechanized exchanging signals is that speculators can, not just rest soundly having a sense of security about their cash, they can have confidence they are truly bringing in cash while they rest.

Then again, there might be times whenever a merchant sees a particular chance and needs to hop on it.

This is the reason BitcoinEvolution permits clients to change to manual exchanging mode whenever.

With this sort of adaptability and precision, speculators utilizing exchange signals from BitcoinEvolution will make certain to never pass up on a chance to make a gainful exchange.

At the point when we contrasted the BitcoinEvolution with the Bitcoin Evolution System, we promptly saw that the Bitcoin Evolution System has a much lower level of fruitful exchanges.

Truth be told, in the wake of utilizing this product for 4 days, we had lost the entirety of our exchanging capital and couldn't keep exchanging.

In view of this, we suggest checking out the BitcoinEvolution programming before making a store with the Bitcoin Evolution System.

Incredible Trading Experience

BitcoinEvolution's foundation comes outfitted with everything a dealer should be fruitful in benefitting from the vacillations in the digital money markets. The stage offers an astounding cluster of specialized markers and simple to-peruse value graphs. This guarantees merchants will have the option to recognize all significant outline designs which could be utilized as productive signs to purchase or sell cryptographic forms of money.

This product additionally permits a merchant to set their own exchanging parameters which incorporate which resources for exchange, the amount to contribute per exchange, the hazard level, the procedures to utilize and significantly more.

In correlation, the Bitcoin Evolution System doesn't permit you to modify all the exchanging parameters.

This product offers less adaptability when contrasted with the BitcoinEvolution framework.

Additionally, BitcoinEvolution has a wide cluster of digital forms of money accessible for exchanging.

These decisions are effectively open in an instinctively structured interface which makes it simple for merchants to execute exchanges. It is very clear that BitcoinEvolution has gone the additional mile to ensure the interface configuration is as instinctive and viable as could be expected under the circumstances.

Moreover, during the client tests, the BitcoinEvolution stage end up being very responsive with no glitches at all.

There was negligible slippage, even with progressively uncommon money sets which will in general have less liquidity.

In any event, during top market hours and with numerous positions open simultaneously, the stage worked strikingly well.

This assists with guaranteeing that dealers will have the option to benefit from speedy market moves all the more viably.

This can be particularly basic for those exchanging on the littler time spans where part second choices are routinely required. As we have referenced previously, the Bitcoin Evolution System frequently has delays, keeping brokers from entering or leaving exchanges at the ideal resource cost.

Responsive and Professional Customer Support

Not exclusively is BitcoinEvolution's exchanging stage responsive, its client care group is likewise responsive and will make a special effort to support the stage's clients. The help group can be reached whenever by means of email. Upon a client trial of the client assistance reaction, the group end up being proficient of the money related markets just as the organization's administrations and items.

Interestingly, client care for the Bitcoin Evolution System was very unhelpful in giving answers for basic issues identified with their product.

They made some troublesome memories noting even the most fundamental inquiries during the client test directed for this audit.

One client care specialist was even discourteous on the telephone.

This can be a genuine worry since the Bitcoin Evolution System exchange calculations were filled with glitches and moderate responsiveness.

Luckily, there is no compelling reason to manage this sort of poor client support when speculators can simply change to BitcoinEvolution, which has a far predominant stage and exchange signals. Be that as it may, it appears the Bitcoin Evolution System wouldn't like to make it simple for speculators to change to another exchange signal supplier. Sadly, the withdrawal procedure for the Bitcoin Evolution System is lumbering and confounding and a long way from clear.

Is the Bitcoin Evolution System for All Traders?

Is the Bitcoin Evolution System for All Traders?

In principle the Bitcoin Evolution System can be utilized by all brokers, anyway because of the various glitches and specialized variations from the norm during the client test for this survey, it's anything but a smart thought for unpracticed dealers to utilize the stage. Unpracticed dealers will make some troublesome memories disclosing to the client assistance group the issues they experience while utilizing the stage's exchange signals.

Actually, even experienced brokers may have issues, since the client care for the Bitcoin Evolution System is very unacceptable.

At the point when you pursue an exchanging programming, the objective is to make your exchanging exercises simpler.

In correlation, the BitcoinEvolution programming is anything but difficult to use, in addition to it is planned so that even new dealers can utilize the product even with no related knowledge or a comprehension of the business sectors.

What's more, experienced merchants can utilize the BitcoinEvolution programming to test their market investigation and exchanging systems, so it is a success win for both new and experienced dealers.

Demo Trading Account

Both BitcoinEvolution and the Bitcoin Evolution System offers clients the choice of beginning with a demo exchanging account. This can help ensure clients know about how the entirety of the stage capacities work before contributing genuine capital. The BitcoinEvolution demo walkthrough is thorough and gives one an away from of how the dashboard functions. This is a major in addition to as it gives a merchant genuine feelings of serenity before they put away their well deserved cash.

Tributes

There are a few tributes from people guaranteeing that they have had the option to make benefits from the Bitcoin Evolution System, anyway these are far and not many in the middle. Not exclusively did these tributes not state for to what extent they stayed productive, there are ordinarily more tributes and online audits asserting that the Bitcoin Evolution System brought about them losing critical cash.

At times, merchants lost their whole exchanging account balance.

There were a few analysts who ventured to guarantee the Bitcoin Evolution System is a trick.

Despite the fact that this might be a touch of a misrepresentation, it is reasonable that a few speculators were flummoxed by the poor working of the stage.

This can be especially baffling when joined with the misfortune consequences of the greater part of the Bitcoin Evolution System exchange signals.

Then again, a straightforward inquiry online will uncover numerous positive surveys about the BitcoinEvolution programming, and it is obvious that its clients are winning over $1,000 consistently utilizing this instinctive and amazing programming arrangement.


Pursuing the Bitcoin Evolution System is genuinely direct. Clients will have the chance to fire the sign-up process directly from the site's landing page. On the correct side of the page, there is a sign-up structure which requests that clients enter their own data. A client's first name, last name and email will be required. Subsequent to rounding this data out, a client will press the "Get Access Now" button.

On the subsequent page, clients will be required to give another arrangement of individual data. The client will enter their telephone number and demonstrate which nation the person in question is enlisting from. There are a few wards which are not upheld by the Bitcoin Evolution System.

For example, those living in the United States are not permitted to enroll for a record with the Bitcoin Evolution System.

BitcoinEvolution has a comparative sign-up process and requires the equivalent definite individual data.

The procedure to enlist with BitcoinEvolution is likewise generally straight forward, actually, it may even be somewhat simpler than the Bitcoin Evolution System.

Set aside the effort to survey both programming arrangements and pick one that meets your exchanging abilities, needs and inclinations.

Exchanging Accounts – BitcoinEvolution

Exchanging Accounts – Bitcoin Evolution

BitcoinEvolution offers different approaches to tweak one's record. The interface is direct and simple to utilize and permits certain highlights to be altered to fit every individual merchant's style and inclination. BitcoinEvolution sees customization as fundamental on the grounds that only one out of every odd speculator contemplates monetary markets. Likewise, few out of every odd merchant has a similar expansiveness of information, aptitude and experience.

This is a major in addition to and contrasts from the Bitcoin Evolution System which doesn't take into account such inside and out customisation.

The base store to enroll for a record with BitcoinEvolution is just $250 which makes it available to financial specialists of all pay levels.

In this manner, everyone gets the opportunity to use BitcoinEvolution's algorithmic exchange signals request to profit by developments in the cryptographic money markets.

Regardless of whether a client is exchanging a little record or a large number of dollars, the person in question can have confidence that BitcoinEvolution calculations will reliably include benefits, while additionally downplaying hazard.

Additionally, Bitcoin Evolution Price, have made it simple for financial specialists to pull back their benefits from their records.

The withdrawal procedure is simple and without problems.

Endless supply of the vital structures, the agent will process the withdrawal demand inside the following 24 to 48 hours.

The assets will be moved by means of the first technique used to store the cash in any case. Also, there are no expenses charged for preparing a withdrawal demand.

Truth be told, BitcoinEvolution doesn't charge any expenses whatsoever.

It is for these numerous reasons that we put the BitcoinEvolution programming in the lead position, and we felt that in our trial of the two programming arrangements, the presentation and achievement of the BitcoinEvolution far surpassed that of the Bitcoin Evolution System.

The Bitcoin Evolution System Review – The Bottom Line – Is This the Real Deal?

The Bitcoin Evolution Reviews – The Bottom Line – Is This the Real Deal?

Clearly the Bitcoin Evolution System is a genuine exchanging stage which permits clients to exchange digital forms of money and Forex utilizing algorithmic exchange signals. In any case, it is likewise self-evident, after client testing, that the exchange signals are shoddy and ought to most likely be kept away from, particularly for amateurs.

Truly, the stage capacities by and large, in spite of various glitches and issues with responsiveness, yet that is a quite low bar for those hoping to make genuine benefits from the money related markets.

There truly is no motivation behind why anyone should consider enrolling with the Bitcoin Evolution System when BitcoinEvolution can really convey on what the Bitcoin Evolution System needs. BitcoinEvolution offers reliably productive exchange flags on a simple to-utilize exchanging stage.

It likewise offers an exchanging situation that is responsive, even in unpredictable economic situations.

Moreover, the stage stays responsive in any event, when a record has an enormous number of open positions.

What's more, to finish everything off, BitcoinEvolution's client care group appears to be fundamentally increasingly skillful and equipped for tending to client worries than the client assistance at the Bitcoin Evolution System. Plainly BitcoinEvolution is the better decision of exchanging stage.
https://www.bitcoinevolutionpro.com/
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How to get started in Forex - A comprehensive guide for newbies

Almost every day people come to this subreddit asking the same basic questions over and over again. I've put this guide together to point you in the right direction and help you get started on your forex journey.

A quick background on me before you ask: My name is Bob, I'm based out of western Canada. I started my forex journey back in January 2018 and am still learning. However I am trading live, not on demo accounts. I also code my own EA's. I not certified, licensed, insured, or even remotely qualified as a professional in the finance industry. Nothing I say constitutes financial advice. Take what I'm saying with a grain of salt, but everything I've outlined below is a synopsis of some tough lessons I've learned over the last year of being in this business.

LET'S GET SOME UNPLEASANTNESS OUT OF THE WAY

I'm going to call you stupid. I'm also going to call you dumb. I'm going to call you many other things. I do this because odds are, you are stupid, foolish,and just asking to have your money taken away. Welcome to the 95% of retail traders. Perhaps uneducated or uninformed are better phrases, but I've never been a big proponent of being politically correct.

Want to get out of the 95% and join the 5% of us who actually make money doing this? Put your grown up pants on, buck up, and don't give me any of this pc "This is hurting my feelings so I'm not going to listen to you" bullshit that the world has been moving towards.

Let's rip the bandage off quickly on this point - the world does not give a fuck about you. At one point maybe it did, it was this amazing vision nicknamed the American Dream. It died an agonizing, horrible death at the hand of capitalists and entrepreneurs. The world today revolves around money. Your money, my money, everybody's money. People want to take your money to add it to theirs. They don't give a fuck if it forces you out on the street and your family has to live in cardboard box. The world just stopped caring in general. It sucks, but it's the way the world works now. Welcome to the new world order. It's called Capitalism.

And here comes the next hard truth that you will need to accept - Forex is a cruel bitch of a mistress. She will hurt you. She will torment you. She will give you nightmares. She will keep you awake at night. And then she will tease you with a glimmer of hope to lure you into a false sense of security before she then guts you like a fish and shows you what your insides look like. This statement applies to all trading markets - they are cruel, ruthless, and not for the weak minded.

The sooner you accept these truths, the sooner you will become profitable. Don't accept it? That's fine. Don't bother reading any further. If I've offended you I don't give a fuck. You can run back home and hide under your bed. The world doesn't care and neither do I.

For what it's worth - I am not normally an major condescending asshole like the above paragraphs would suggest. In fact, if you look through my posts on this subreddit you will see I am actually quite helpful most of the time to many people who come here. But I need you to really understand that Forex is not for most people. It will make you cry. And if the markets themselves don't do it, the people in the markets will.

LESSON 1 - LEARN THE BASICS

Save yourself and everybody here a bunch of time - learn the basics of forex. You can learn the basics for free - BabyPips has one of the best free courses online which explains what exactly forex is, how it works, different strategies and methods of how to approach trading, and many other amazing topics.

You can access the BabyPips course by clicking this link: https://www.babypips.com/learn/forex

Do EVERY course in the School of Pipsology. It's free, it's comprehensive, and it will save you from a lot of trouble. It also has the added benefit of preventing you from looking foolish and uneducated when you come here asking for help if you already know this stuff.

If you still have questions about how forex works, please see the FREE RESOURCES links on the /Forex FAQ which can be found here: https://www.reddit.com/Forex/wiki/index

Quiz Time
Answer these questions truthfully to yourself:

-What is the difference between a market order, a stop order, and a limit order?
-How do you draw a support/resistance line? (Demonstrate it to yourself)
-What is the difference between MACD, RSI, and Stochastic indicators?
-What is fundamental analysis and how does it differ from technical analysis and price action trading?
-True or False: It's better to have a broker who gives you 500:1 margin instead of 50:1 margin. Be able to justify your reasoning.

If you don't know to answer to any of these questions, then you aren't ready to move on. Go back to the School of Pipsology linked above and do it all again.

If you can answer these questions without having to refer to any kind of reference then congratulations, you are ready to move past being a forex newbie and are ready to dive into the wonderful world of currency trading! Move onto Lesson 2 below.

LESSON 2 - RANDOM STRANGERS ARE NOT GOING TO HELP YOU GET RICH IN FOREX

This may come as a bit of a shock to you, but that random stranger on instagram who is posting about how he is killing it on forex is not trying to insprire you to greatness. He's also not trying to help you. He's also not trying to teach you how to attain financial freedom.

99.99999% of people posting about wanting to help you become rich in forex are LYING TO YOU.

Why would such nice, polite people do such a thing? Because THEY ARE TRYING TO PROFIT FROM YOUR STUPIDITY.

Plain and simple. Here's just a few ways these "experts" and "gurus" profit from you:


These are just a few examples. The reality is that very few people make it big in forex or any kind of trading. If somebody is trying to sell you the dream, they are essentially a magician - making you look the other way while they snatch your wallet and clean you out.

Additionally, on the topic of fund managers - legitimate fund managers will be certified, licensed, and insured. Ask them for proof of those 3 things. What they typically look like are:

If you are talking to a fund manager and they are insisting they have all of these, get a copy of their verification documents and lookup their licenses on the directories of the issuers to verify they are valid. If they are, then at least you are talking to somebody who seems to have their shit together and is doing investment management and trading as a professional and you are at least partially protected when the shit hits the fan.


LESSON 3 - UNDERSTAND YOUR RISK

Many people jump into Forex, drop $2000 into a broker account and start trading 1 lot orders because they signed up with a broker thinking they will get rich because they were given 500:1 margin and can risk it all on each trade. Worst-case scenario you lose your account, best case scenario you become a millionaire very quickly. Seems like a pretty good gamble right? You are dead wrong.

As a new trader, you should never risk more than 1% of your account balance on a trade. If you have some experience and are confident and doing well, then it's perfectly natural to risk 2-3% of your account per trade. Anybody who risks more than 4-5% of their account on a single trade deserves to blow their account. At that point you aren't trading, you are gambling. Don't pretend you are a trader when really you are just putting everything on red and hoping the roulette ball lands in the right spot. It's stupid and reckless and going to screw you very quickly.

Let's do some math here:

You put $2,000 into your trading account.
Risking 1% means you are willing to lose $20 per trade. That means you are going to be trading micro lots, or 0.01 lots most likely ($0.10/pip). At that level you can have a trade stop loss at -200 pips and only lose $20. It's the best starting point for anybody. Additionally, if you SL 20 trades in a row you are only down $200 (or 10% of your account) which isn't that difficult to recover from.
Risking 3% means you are willing to lose $60 per trade. You could do mini lots at this point, which is 0.1 lots (or $1/pip). Let's say you SL on 20 trades in a row. You've just lost $1,200 or 60% of your account. Even veteran traders will go through periods of repeat SL'ing, you are not a special snowflake and are not immune to periods of major drawdown.
Risking 5% means you are willing to lose $100 per trade. SL 20 trades in a row, your account is blown. As Red Foreman would call it - Good job dumbass.

Never risk more than 1% of your account on any trade until you can show that you are either consistently breaking even or making a profit. By consistently, I mean 200 trades minimum. You do 200 trades over a period of time and either break-even or make a profit, then you should be alright to increase your risk.

Unfortunately, this is where many retail traders get greedy and blow it. They will do 10 trades and hit their profit target on 9 of them. They will start seeing huge piles of money in their future and get greedy. They will start taking more risk on their trades than their account can handle.

200 trades of break-even or profitable performance risking 1% per trade. Don't even think about increasing your risk tolerance until you do it. When you get to this point, increase you risk to 2%. Do 1,000 trades at this level and show break-even or profit. If you blow your account, go back down to 1% until you can figure out what the hell you did differently or wrong, fix your strategy, and try again.

Once you clear 1,000 trades at 2%, it's really up to you if you want to increase your risk. I don't recommend it. Even 2% is bordering on gambling to be honest.


LESSON 4 - THE 500 PIP DRAWDOWN RULE

This is a rule I created for myself and it's a great way to help protect your account from blowing.

Sometimes the market goes insane. Like really insane. Insane to the point that your broker can't keep up and they can't hold your orders to the SL and TP levels you specified. They will try, but during a flash crash like we had at the start of January 2019 the rules can sometimes go flying out the window on account of the trading servers being unable to keep up with all the shit that's hitting the fan.

Because of this I live by a rule I call the 500 Pip Drawdown Rule and it's really quite simple - Have enough funds in your account to cover a 500 pip drawdown on your largest open trade. I don't care if you set a SL of -50 pips. During a flash crash that shit sometimes just breaks.

So let's use an example - you open a 0.1 lot short order on USDCAD and set the SL to 50 pips (so you'd only lose $50 if you hit stoploss). An hour later Trump makes some absurd announcement which causes a massive fundamental event on the market. A flash crash happens and over the course of the next few minutes USDCAD spikes up 500 pips, your broker is struggling to keep shit under control and your order slips through the cracks. By the time your broker is able to clear the backlog of orders and activity, your order closes out at 500 pips in the red. You just lost $500 when you intended initially to only risk $50.

It gets kinda scary if you are dealing with whole lot orders. A single order with a 500 pip drawdown is $5,000 gone in an instant. That will decimate many trader accounts.

Remember my statements above about Forex being a cruel bitch of a mistress? I wasn't kidding.

Granted - the above scenario is very rare to actually happen. But glitches to happen from time to time. Broker servers go offline. Weird shit happens which sets off a fundamental shift. Lots of stuff can break your account very quickly if you aren't using proper risk management.


LESSON 5 - UNDERSTAND DIFFERENT TRADING METHODOLOGIES

Generally speaking, there are 3 trading methodologies that traders employ. It's important to figure out what method you intend to use before asking for help. Each has their pros and cons, and you can combine them in a somewhat hybrid methodology but that introduces challenges as well.

In a nutshell:

Now you may be thinking that you want to be a a price action trader - you should still learn the principles and concepts behind TA and FA. Same if you are planning to be a technical trader - you should learn about price action and fundamental analysis. More knowledge is better, always.

With regards to technical analysis, you need to really understand what the different indicators are tell you. It's very easy to misinterpret what an indicator is telling you, which causes you to make a bad trade and lose money. It's also important to understand that every indicator can be tuned to your personal preferences.

You might find, for example, that using Bollinger Bands with the normal 20 period SMA close, 2 standard deviation is not effective for how you look at the chart, but changing that to say a 20 period EMA average price, 1 standard deviation bollinger band indicator could give you significantly more insight.


LESSON 6 - TIMEFRAMES MATTER

Understanding the differences in which timeframes you trade on will make or break your chosen strategy. Some strategies work really well on Daily timeframes (i.e. Ichimoku) but they fall flat on their face if you use them on 1H timeframes, for example.

There is no right or wrong answer on what timeframe is best to trade on. Generally speaking however, there are 2 things to consider:


If you are a total newbie to forex, I suggest you don't trade on anything shorter than the 1H timeframe when you are first learning. Trading on higher timeframes tends to be much more forgiving and profitable per trade. Scalping is a delicate art and requires finesse and can be very challenging when you are first starting out.


LESSON 7 - AUTOBOTS...ROLL OUT!

Yeah...I'm a geek and grew up with the Transformers franchise decades before Michael Bay came along. Deal with it.

Forex bots are called EA's (Expert Advisors). They can be wonderous and devastating at the same time. /Forex is not really the best place to get help with them. That is what /algotrading is useful for. However some of us that lurk on /Forex code EA's and will try to assist when we can.

Anybody can learn to code an EA. But just like how 95% of retail traders fail, I would estimate the same is true for forex bots. Either the strategy doesn't work, the code is buggy, or many other reasons can cause EA's to fail. Because EA's can often times run up hundreds of orders in a very quick period of time, it's critical that you test them repeatedly before letting them lose on a live trading account so they don't blow your account to pieces. You have been warned.

If you want to learn how to code an EA, I suggest you start with MQL. It's a programming language which can be directly interpretted by Meta Trader. The Meta Trader terminal client even gives you a built in IDE for coding EA's in MQL. The downside is it can be buggy and glitchy and caused many frustrating hours of work to figure out what is wrong.

If you don't want to learn MQL, you can code an EA up in just about any programming language. Python is really popular for forex bots for some reason. But that doesn't mean you couldn't do it in something like C++ or Java or hell even something more unusual like JQuery if you really wanted.

I'm not going to get into the finer details of how to code EA's, there are some amazing guides out there. Just be careful with them. They can be your best friend and at the same time also your worst enemy when it comes to forex.

One final note on EA's - don't buy them. Ever. Let me put this into perspective - I create an EA which is literally producing money for me automatically 24/5. If it really is a good EA which is profitable, there is no way in hell I'm selling it. I'm keeping it to myself to make a fortune off of. EA's that are for sale will not work, will blow your account, and the developer who coded it will tell you that's too darn bad but no refunds. Don't ever buy an EA from anybody.

LESSON 8 - BRING ON THE HATERS

You are going to find that this subreddit is frequented by trolls. Some of them will get really nasty. Some of them will threaten you. Some of them will just make you miserable. It's the price you pay for admission to the /Forex club.

If you can't handle it, then I suggest you don't post here. Find a more newbie-friendly site. It sucks, but it's reality.

We often refer to trolls on this subreddit as shitcunts. That's your word of the day. Learn it, love it. Shitcunts.


YOU MADE IT, WELCOME TO FOREX!

If you've made it through all of the above and aren't cringing or getting scared, then welcome aboard the forex train! You will fit in nicely here. Ask your questions and the non-shitcunts of our little corner of reddit will try to help you.

Assuming this post doesn't get nuked and I don't get banned for it, I'll add more lessons to this post over time. Lessons I intend to add in the future:
If there is something else you feel should be included please drop a comment and I'll add it to the above list of pending topics.

Cheers,

Bob



submitted by wafflestation to Forex [link] [comments]

Kin Swap FAQ + Video Tutorials + Guides (Multiple Languages)

FAQs:

1) Do I need to swap?
Yes. Kin is migrating to its own Blockchain which will be the only system connected to their SDKs.
If you do not transfer your Kin you will be left with the ERC-20 tokens. The Kin Foundation claims there will be an on-going one way swap method manually via Kin's support staff in the future if you miss the swap window. We have no further details on how this process will work, how long it will take or if it will always be available. Kin ERC20 tokens will not be used in the main Kin blockchain, SDK or apps.
2) Can't I swap back?
No. The original plan was to have a programmatic 1:1 swap always available. This was abandoned.
This is a one-time swap. It is only available through exchange partners.
3) Do I need to swap my Kin if it is in an app like Kik, Kinit, Kinny, Swelly or MadLipz?
No. This Kin is being migrated for you.
4) Do I need to swap my Kin if I have it in an exchange?
Yes. If your exchange is not:
Or you were not previously holding Kin on:
Then you MUST move your Kin in order to swap it. It will not swap automatically.
5) Will other exchanges support the swap?
We don't know. The Kin documentation is unclear, and it seems unlikely based on the time constraints set. If they do, there is no guarantee that there will not be a fee.
6) Are their fees for the transaction?
Kin's documentation has said partners are not charging fees. There still may be network fees. You should talk to the customer support of each service before swapping if you are worried about fees.
7) If my Kin is in a wallet like Jaxx, MEW, Coinimi, etc do I have to swap?
Yes. You must manually swap.
8) Is there any way to swap that is not an exchange?
Yes. CoinSwitch and Changelly are technically not exchanges but also support the swap.
9) Is there anyway to swap that is not a third-party service?
No.
10) How much time do I have?
For the current exchanges you have until April 10th. (EST)
For CoinSwitch and Changelly you have until June 12th.
11) What happens after June 12th?
We have no idea. We are told there will be a manual swap method available for individuals who were unable to swap prior to that time. What this looks like is still unclear.
12) How do I swap?
Right now we are in Phase 2 of the swap, there are less options for swapping currently. You can see the Phase 2 guide here: http://nufi.io/how-to-swap-your-kin-with-p2pb2b/
13) Should I use FreeWallet, AtomicWallet or TrustWallet?
Both of those services come with risks. FreeWallet is centralized and is owned by HitBTC a controversial exchange commonly accused of scamming.
AtomicWallet requires running third-party software on your system.
Neither are ideal or recommended. If you are using a wallet you should consider buying a Ledger device, or Creating a Paper Wallet?. If neither of those are an option then you can use TrustWallet by Binance.
14) Which exchange is the safest?
That is a matter of personal opinion. Right now your only option is P2PB2B
15) Should I use CoinSwitch?
CoinSwitch is an unknown and fairly new team from India. The process of switching has been smooth for some people so far, but, it is worth proceeding with caution. Multiple virus scanners such as F-Secure and McAffee also suggest it is an unsafe site.
The main problem is that to use Changelly or CoinSwitch you must either manually set up your Ledger to support Kin, or use AtomicWallet or FreeWallet - which is not advisable.
16) When will I get my Kin?
If you use the instant switching from CoinSwitch or Changelly you should get the Kin3 within a few minutes.
If you use Lykke or LAToken you will get your Kin3 March 26th.
If you use any of the other exchanges you will get your Kin3 on March 21st.
For Phase 2 using P2PB2B you will get your coins on April 12th or 13th.
17) Is Trezor supported?
No.
18) If my Kin are in HitBTC do I need to do anything?
Technically no. But, HitBTC has very expensive withdraw fees and a pretty bad reputation. You should check out the guide below for other options.
19) If I am out of the country and away from my hardware wallet for 3-6+ months how will I deal with the swap?
This has been discussed with Kin support, they claim they will have a manual email service for people who are in this situation. No further information has been given at this time. It is unclear if any proof is required or what the process involves. It is unclear if the process is only for ICO holders.
20) What if I have Kin on Stellar from Stellarport etc?
Stellar assets like that are issued as "IOUs" from the Stellar Anchor you bought them at. They are not tokens. In theory, who ever sold you the IOU should have Kin1 tokens that they are holding in balance when issued. They should swap these tokens to Kin3 and provide you with a Kin3 IOU or the Kin3 itself. You will need to contact the support at your Stellar Anchor to confirm more.
21) Are more exchanges coming?
Yes. We know more exchanges are coming, but we have no idea when, or which exchanges.
22) I'm doing your tutorial on How to Build Manual Ledger Transactions but getting the error code op_no_destination?
This means the wallet you are trying to send to isn't activated yet. Wallets on Stellar don't get created when the keypair is generated, they get created by another wallet activating and funding them. You must use the operation "CreateAccount" rather than "Payment" when building the transaction.
23) I'm doing your tutorial on How to Build Manual Ledger Transactions but getting the error code Unsupported Media Type?
Most likely you are on the Kin test network and not the main network. Check the upper right hand corner of the lab and switch to the public network.
24) How do I transfer from MEW?
Simply follow either the How to Swap Kin with Exchanges (Beginners) or How to Swap Kin with Ledger (Advanced Users Only) but instead of sending from a Ledger send the tokens from your MEW wallet. If you choose to do the instant swap you'll need to have a Kin3 compatible wallet such as a paper wallet (How to create a Kin Paper Wallet/What is a Paper Wallet?)
24) I have other questions not answered here?
I've set up a specific Question Thread to better keep track of issues.
25) Where can I stay up to date on this stuff?
Since there hasn't been much official guidance, I've been tweeting about important updates as they develop. You can follow the account I set up here: @crypto_adamsc1

Guides:

International Guides:

Videos:

Kin FAQ in other languages:

submitted by AdamSC1 to KinFoundation [link] [comments]

Trump Didn’t Kill the Global Trade System. He Split It in Two.

This article is taken from the Wall Street Journal written about nine months ago and sits behind a a paywall, so I decided to copy and paste it here. This article explains Trump's policies toward global trade and what has actually happened so far. I think the article does a decent job of explaining the Trade War. While alot has happenedsince the article was written, I still think its relevant.
However, what is lacking in the article, like many articles on the trade war, is it doesn't really explain the history of US trade policy, the laws that the US administration is using to place tariffs on China and the official justification for the US President in enacting tariffs against China. In my analysis I will cover those points.

SUMMARY

When Trump entered the White House people feared he would dismantle the global system the US and its allies had built over the last 75 years, but he hasn't. He has realign into two systems. One between the US and its allies which looks similar to the one built since the 1980s with a few of quota and tariffs. As the article points out
Today, Korus and Nafta have been replaced by updated agreements(one not yet ratified) that look much like the originals. South Korea accepted quotas on steel. Mexico and Canada agreed to higher wages, North American content requirements and quotas for autos. Furthermore, the article points out Douglas Irwin, an economist and trade historian at Dartmouth College, calls these results the “status quo with Trumpian tweaks: a little more managed trade sprinkled about for favored industries. It’s not good, but it’s not the destruction of the system.” Mr. Trump’s actions so far affect only 12% of U.S. imports, according to Chad Bown of the Peterson Institute for International Economics. In 1984, 21% of imports were covered by similar restraints, many imposed by Mr. Reagan, such as on cars, steel, motorcycles and clothing. Protectionist instincts go so far in the US, there are strong lobby groups for both protectionist and freetrade in the US.
The second reflects a emerging rivalry between the US and China. Undo some of the integration that followed China accession to the WTO. Two questions 1) How far is the US willing to decouple with China 2) Can it persuade allies to join.
The second is going to be difficult because China's economic ties are greater than they were between the Soviets, and China isn't waging an ideological struggle. Trump lacks Reagan commitment to alliance and free trade. The status quo with China is crumbling Dan Sullivan, a Republican senator from Alaska, personifies these broader forces reshaping the U.S. approach to the world. When Mr. Xi visited the U.S. in 2015, Mr. Sullivan urged his colleagues to pay more attention to China’s rise. On the Senate floor, he quoted the political scientist Graham Allison: “War between the U.S. and China is more likely than recognized at the moment.” Last spring, Mr. Sullivan went to China and met officials including Vice President Wang Qishan. They seemed to think tensions with the U.S. will fade after Mr. Trump leaves the scene, Mr. Sullivan recalled. “I just said, ‘You are completely misreading this.’” The mistrust, he told them, is bipartisan, and will outlast Mr. Trump. both Bush II and Obama tried to change dialogue and engagement, but by the end of his term, Obama was questioning the approach. Trump has declared engagement. “We don’t like it when our allies steal our ideas either, but it’s a much less dangerous situation,” said Derek Scissors, a China expert at the American Enterprise Institute whose views align with the administration’s more hawkish officials. “We’re not worried about the war-fighting capability of Japan and Korea because they’re our friends.”
The article also points out unlike George Kennan in 1946 who made a case for containing the Soviet Union, the US hasn't explicitly made a case for containing the Soviets, Trump's administration hasn't, because as the the article explains its divided Michael Pillsbury a Hudson Institute scholar close to the Trump team, see 3 scenarios
Pillsbury thinks the third is most likely to happen, even though the administration hasn't said that it has adopted that policy. The US is stepping efforts to draw in other trading partners. The US, EU and Japan have launched a WTO effort to crack down on domestic subsidies and technology transfers requirement. US and Domestic concerns with prompted some countries to restrict Huawei. The US is also seeking to walloff China from other trade deals. However, there are risk with this strategy

ARTICLE

Trump Didn’t Kill the Global Trade System. He Split It in Two.

INTRODUCTION

My main criticism of this article is it tries like the vast majority of articles to fit US trade actions in the larger context of US geopolitical strategy. Even the author isn't certain "The first goes to the heart of Mr. Trump’s goal. If his aim is to hold back China’s advance, economists predict he will fail.". If you try to treat the trade "war" and US geopolitical strategy toward China as one, you will find yourself quickly frustrated and confused. If you treat them separately with their different set of stakeholders and histories, were they intersect with regards to China, but diverge. During the Cold War, trade policy toward the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc was subordinated to geopolitical concerns. For Trump, the trade issues are more important than geopolitical strategy. His protectionist trade rhetoric has been fairly consistent since 1980s. In his administration, the top cabinet members holding economic portfolios, those of Commerce, Treasury and US Trade Representative are the same people he picked when he first took office. The Director of the Economic Council has changed hands once, its role isn't as important as the National Security Advisor. While State, Defense, CIA, Homeland Security, UN Ambassador, National Security Advisor have changed hands at least once. Only the Director of National Intelligence hasn't changed.
International Trade makes up 1/4 of the US economy, and like national security its primarily the responsibility of the Federal government. States in the US don't implement their own tariffs. If you add the impact of Treasury policy and how it relates to capital flows in and out of the US, the amounts easily exceed the size of the US economy. Furthermore, because of US Dollar role as the reserve currency and US control of over global system the impact of Treasury are global. Trade policy and investment flows runs through two federal departments Commerce and Treasury and for trade also USTR. Defense spending makes up 3.3% of GDP, and if you add in related homeland security its at most 4%. Why would anyone assume that these two realms be integrated let alone trade policy subordinate to whims of a national security bureaucracy in most instances? With North Korea or Iran, trade and investment subordinate themselves to national security, because to Treasury and Commerce bureaucrats and their affiliated interest groups, Iran and the DPRK are well, economic midgets, but China is a different matter.
The analysis will be divided into four sections. The first will be to provide a brief overview of US trade policy since 1914. The second section will discuss why the US is going after China on trade issues, and why the US has resorted using a bilateral approach as opposed to going through the WTO. The third section we will talk about how relations with China is hashed out in the US.
The reason why I submitted this article, because there aren't many post trying to explain US-China Trade War from a trade perspective. Here is a post titled "What is the Reasons for America's Trade War with China, and not one person mentioned Article 301 or China's WTO Commitments. You get numerous post saying that Huawei is at heart of the trade war. Its fine, but if you don't know what was inside the USTR Investigative report that lead to the tariffs. its like skipping dinner and only having dessert When the US President, Donald J Trump, says he wants to negotiate a better trade deal with other countries, and has been going on about for the last 35 years, longer than many of you have been alive, why do people think that the key issues with China aren't primarily about trade at the moment.

OVERVIEW OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE ORIENTATION

Before 1940s, the US could be categorized as a free market protectionist economy. For many this may seem like oxymoron, how can an economy be free market and protectionist? In 1913, government spending made up about 7.5% of US GDP, in the UK it was 13%, and for Germany 18% (Public Spending in the 20th Century A Global Perspective: Ludger Schuknecht and Vito Tanzi - 2000). UK had virtual zero tariffs, while for manufactured goods in France it was 20%, 13% Germany, 9% Belgium and 4% Netherlands. For raw materials and agricultural products, it was almost zero. In contrast, for the likes of United States, Russia and Japan it was 44%, 84% and 30% respectively. Even though in 1900 United States was an economic powerhouse along with Germany, manufactured exports only made up 30% of exports, and the US government saw tariffs as exclusively a domestic policy matter and didn't see tariffs as something to be negotiated with other nations. The US didn't have the large constituency to push the government for lower tariffs abroad for their exports like in Britain in the 1830-40s (Reluctant Partners: A History of Multilateral Trade Cooperation, 1850-2000).
The Underwood Tariffs Act of 1913 which legislated the income tax, dropped the tariffs to 1850 levels levels.Until 16th amendment was ratified in 1913 making income tax legal, all US federal revenue came from excise and tariffs. In contrast before 1914, about 50% of UK revenue came from income taxes. The reason for US reluctance to introduced income tax was ideological and the United State's relative weak government compared to those in Europe. After the First World War, the US introduced the Emergency Tariff Act of 1921, than the Fordney–McCumber Tariff of 1922 followed by a Smoot-Hawley Act of 1930. Contrary to popular opinion, the Smoot-Hawley Act of 1930 had a small negative impact on the economy, since imports and exports played a small part of the US economy, and the tariffs were lower than the average that existed from 1850-1914.
Immediately after the Second World War, when the US economy was the only industrialized economy left standing, the economic focus was on rehabilitation and monetary stability. There was no grandiose and ideological design. Bretton Woods system linked the US dollar to gold to create monetary stability, and to avoid competitive devaluation and tariffs that plagued the world economy after Britain took itself off the gold in 1931. The US$ was the natural choice, because in 1944 2/3 of the world's gold was in the US. One reason why the Marshall Plan was created was to alleviate the chronic deficits Europeans countries had with the US between 1945-50. It was to rebuild their economies so they could start exports good to the US. Even before it was full implemented in 1959, it was already facing problems, the trade surpluses that the US was running in the 1940s, turned to deficits as European and Japanese economies recovered. By 1959, Federal Reserves foreign liabilities had already exceeded its gold reserves. There were fears of a run on the US gold supply and arbitrage. A secondary policy of the Bretton woods system was curbs on capital outflows to reduce speculation on currency pegs, and this had a negative impact on foreign investment until it was abandoned in 1971. It wasn't until the 1980s, where foreign investment recovered to levels prior to 1914. Factoring out the big spike in global oil prices as a result of the OPEC cartel, it most likely wasn't until the mid-1990s that exports as a % of GDP had reached 1914 levels.
Until the 1980s, the US record regarding free trade and markets was mediocre. The impetus to remove trade barriers in Europe after the Second World War was driven by the Europeans themselves. The EEC already had a custom union in 1968, Canada and the US have yet to even discuss implementing one. Even with Canada it took the US over 50 years to get a Free Trade Agreement. NAFTA was inspired by the success of the EEC. NAFTA was very much an elite driven project. If the Americans put the NAFTA to a referendum like the British did with the EEC in the seventies, it most likely wouldn't pass. People often look at segregation in the US South as a political issue, but it was economic issue as well. How could the US preach free trade, when it didn't have free trade in its own country. Segregation was a internal non-tariff barrier. In the first election after the end of the Cold War in 1992, Ross Perot' based most of independent run for the Presidency on opposition to NAFTA. He won 19% of the vote. Like Ross Perot before him, Donald Trump is not the exception in how America has handled tariffs since the founding of the Republic, but more the norm.
The embrace of free trade by the business and political elite can be attributed to two events. After the end of Bretton Woods in 1971, a strong vested interest in the US in the form of multinationals and Wall Street emerged advocating for removal of tariffs and more importantly the removal of restrictions on free flow of capital, whether direct foreign investment in portfolio investment. However, the political class embrace of free trade and capital only really took off after the collapse of the Soviet Union propelled by Cold War triumphalism.
As mentioned by the article, the US is reverting back to a pre-WTO relations with China. As Robert Lighthizer said in speech in 2000
I guess my prescription, really, is to move back to more of a negotiating kind of a settlement. Return to WTO and what it really was meant to be. Something where you have somebody make a decision but have it not be binding.
The US is using financial and legal instruments developed during the Cold War like its extradition treaties (with Canada and Europe), and Section 301. Here is a very good recent article about enforcement commitment that China will make.‘Painful’ enforcement ahead for China if trade war deal is reached with US insisting on unilateral terms
NOTE: It is very difficult to talk about US-China trade war without a basic knowledge of global economic history since 1914. What a lot of people do is politicize or subordinate the economic history to the political. Some commentators think US power was just handed to them after the Second World War, when the US was the only industrialized economy left standing. The dominant position of the US was temporary and in reality its like having 10 tonnes of Gold sitting in your house, it doesn't automatically translate to influence. The US from 1945-1989 was slowly and gradually build her influence in the non-Communist world. For example, US influence in Canada in the 1960s wasn't as strong as it is now. Only 50% of Canadian exports went to the US in 1960s vs 80% at the present moment.

BASIS OF THE US TRADE DISCUSSION WITH CHINA

According to preliminary agreement between China and the US based on unnamed sources in the Wall Street Journal article US, China close in on Trade Deal. In this article it divides the deal in two sections. The first aspects have largely to do with deficits and is political.
As part of a deal, China is pledging to help level the playing field, including speeding up the timetable for removing foreign-ownership limitations on car ventures and reducing tariffs on imported vehicles to below the current auto tariff of 15%. Beijing would also step up purchases of U.S. goods—a tactic designed to appeal to President Trump, who campaigned on closing the bilateral trade deficit with China. One of the sweeteners would be an $18 billion natural-gas purchase from Cheniere Energy Inc., people familiar with the transaction said.
The second part will involve the following.
  1. Commitment Regarding Industrial Policy
  2. Provisions to protect IP
  3. Mechanism which complaints by US companies can be addressed
  4. Bilateral meetings adjudicate disputes. If talks don't produce agreement than US can raise tariffs unilaterally
This grouping of conditions is similar to the points filled under the 301 investigation which serve the basis for initiating the tariffs. I have been reading some sources that say this discussion on this second group of broader issues could only be finalized later
The official justifications for placing the tariffs on Chinese goods is found under the March 2018 investigation submitted by the office of the President to Congress titled FINDINGS OF THE INVESTIGATION INTO CHINA’S ACTS, POLICIES, AND PRACTICES RELATED TO TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, AND INNOVATION UNDER SECTION 301 OF THE TRADE ACT OF 1974. From this investigation the United States Trade Representative (USTR) place US Tariffs on Chinese goods as per Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974. Here is a press release by the USTR listing the reasons for placing tariffs, and the key section from the press release. Specifically, the Section 301 investigation revealed:
In the bigger context of trade relations between US and China, China is not honoring its WTO commitments, and the USTR issued its yearly report to Congress in early February about the status of China compliance with its WTO commitments. The points that served as a basis for applying Section 301, also deviate from her commitments as Clinton's Trade Representative Charlene Barshefsky paving the way for a trade war. Barshefsky argues that China's back sliding was happening as early as 2006-07, and believes the trade war could have been avoided has those commitments been enforced by previous administrations.
I will provide a brief overview of WTO membership and China's process of getting into the WTO.
WTO members can be divided into two groups, first are countries that joined in 1995-97, and were members of GATT, than there are the second group that joined after 1997. China joined in 2001. There is an argument that when China joined in 2001, she faced more stringent conditions than other developing countries that joined before, because the vast majority of developing countries were members of GATT, and were admitted to the WTO based on that previous membership in GATT. Here is Brookings Institute article published in 2001 titled "Issues in China’s WTO Accession"
This question is all the more puzzling because the scope and depth of demands placed on entrants into the formal international trading system have increased substantially since the formal conclusion of the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations in 1994, which expanded the agenda considerably by covering many services, agriculture, intellectual property, and certain aspects of foreign direct investment. Since 1994, the international community has added agreements covering information technology, basic telecommunications services, and financial services. WTO membership now entails liberalization of a much broader range of domestic economic activity, including areas that traditionally have been regarded by most countries as among the most sensitive, than was required of countries entering the WTO’s predecessor organization the GATT.
The terms of China’s protocol of accession to the World Trade Organization reflect the developments just described and more. China’s market access commitments are much more far-reaching than those that governed the accession of countries only a decade ago. And, as a condition for membership, China was required to make protocol commitments that substantially exceed those made by any other member of the World Trade Organization, including those that have joined since 1995. The broader and deeper commitments China has made inevitably will entail substantial short-term economic costs.
What are the WTO commitments Barshefsky goes on about? When countries join the WTO, particularly those countries that weren't members of GATT and joined after 1997, they have to work toward fulfilling certain commitments. There are 4 key documents when countries make an accession to WTO membership, the working party report, the accession protocol paper, the goods schedule and service schedule.
In the working party report as part of the conclusion which specifies the commitment of each member country what they will do in areas that aren't compliant with WTO regulations on the date they joined. The problem there is no good enforcement mechanism for other members to force China to comply with these commitments. And WTO punishments are weak.
Here is the commitment paragraph for China
"The Working Party took note of the explanations and statements of China concerning its foreign trade regime, as reflected in this Report. The Working Party took note of the commitments given by China in relation to certain specific matters which are reproduced in paragraphs 18-19, 22-23, 35-36, 40, 42, 46-47, 49, 60, 62, 64, 68, 70, 73, 75, 78-79, 83-84, 86, 91-93, 96, 100-103, 107, 111, 115-117, 119-120, 122-123, 126-132, 136, 138, 140, 143, 145, 146, 148, 152, 154, 157, 162, 165, 167-168, 170-174, 177-178, 180, 182, 184-185, 187, 190-197, 199-200, 203-207, 210, 212-213, 215, 217, 222-223, 225, 227-228, 231-235, 238, 240-242, 252, 256, 259, 263, 265, 270, 275, 284, 286, 288, 291, 292, 296, 299, 302, 304-305, 307-310, 312-318, 320, 322, 331-334, 336, 339 and 341 of this Report and noted that these commitments are incorporated in paragraph 1.2 of the Draft Protocol. "
This is a tool by the WTO that list all the WTO commitment of each country in the working paper. In the goods and service schedule they have commitments for particular sectors. Here is the a press release by the WTO in September 2001, after successfully concluding talks for accession, and brief summary of key areas in which China hasn't fulfilled her commitments. Most of the commitments made by China were made to address its legacy as a non-market economy and involvement of state owned enterprises. In my opinion, I think the US government and investors grew increasingly frustrated with China, after 2007 not just because of China's back sliding, but relative to other countries who joined after 1997 like Vietnam, another non-market Leninist dictatorship. When comparing China's commitments to the WTO its best to compare her progress with those that joined after 1997, which were mostly ex-Soviet Republics.
NOTE: The Chinese media have for two decades compared any time the US has talked about China's currency manipulation or any other issue as a pretext for imposing tariffs on China to the Plaza Accords. I am very sure people will raise it here. My criticism of this view is fourfold. First, the US targeted not just Japan, but France, Britain and the UK as well. Secondly, the causes of the Japan lost decade were due largely to internal factors. Thirdly, Japan, UK, Britain and France in the 1980s, the Yuan isn't undervalued today. Lastly, in the USTR investigation, its China's practices that are the concern, not so much the trade deficit.

REASONS FOR TRUMPS UNILATERAL APPROACH

I feel that people shouldn't dismiss Trump's unilateral approach toward China for several reasons.
  1. The multilateral approach won't work in many issues such as the trade deficit, commercial espionage and intellectual property, because US and her allies have different interest with regard to these issues. Germany and Japan and trade surpluses with China, while the US runs a deficit. In order to reach a consensus means the West has to compromise among themselves, and the end result if the type of toothless resolutions you commonly find in ASEAN regarding the SCS. Does America want to "compromise" its interest to appease a politician like Justin Trudeau? Not to mention opposition from domestic interest. TPP was opposed by both Clinton and Trump during the election.
  2. You can't launch a geopolitical front against China using a newly formed trade block like the TPP. Some of the existing TPP members are in economic groups with China, like Malaysia and Australia.
  3. China has joined a multitude of international bodies, and at least in trade, these bodies haven't changed its behavior.
  4. Dealing with China, its a no win situation whether you use a tough multilateral / unilateral approach. If the US endorse a tough unilateral approach gives the impression that the US is acting like the British during the Opium War. If you take a concerted Western approach you are accused of acting like the 8 Powers Alliance in 1900.
  5. Trump was elected to deal with China which he and his supporters believe was responsible for the loss of millions manufacturing jobs when China joined the WTO in 2001. It is estimate the US lost 6 Million jobs, about 1/4 of US manufacturing Jobs. This has been subsequently advanced by some economists. The ball got rolling when Bill Clinton decided to grant China Most Favored Nation status in 1999, just a decade after Tiananmen.
  6. China hasn't dealt with issues like IP protection, market access, subsidies to state own companies and state funded industrial spying.
To his credit, Trump has said his aim was not to overthrow authoritarian governments, and that even applies to the likes of Iran. The Arab spring scared Russia and China, because the US for a brief moment placed the spread of democracy over its security interest.

UNDERSTANDING HOW THE US MAKES DECISIONS REGARDING CHINA

At this moment, China or the trade war isn't an area of great concern for the American public, among international issues it ranks lower than international terrorism, North Korea and Iran's nuclear program.
According to the survey, 39 percent of the country views China’s growing power as a “critical threat” to Americans. That ranked it only eighth among 12 potential threats listed and placed China well behind the perceived threats from international terrorism (66 percent), North Korea’s nuclear program (59 percent) and Iran’s nuclear program (52 percent). It’s also considerably lower than when the same question was asked during the 1990s, when more than half of those polled listed China as a critical threat. That broadly tracks with a recent poll from the Pew Research Center that found concern about U.S.-China economic issues had decreased since 2012.
In looking at how US conducts relations foreign policy with China, we should look at it from the three areas of most concern - economic, national security and ideology. Each sphere has their interest groups, and sometimes groups can occupy two spheres at once. Security experts are concerned with some aspects of China's economic actions like IP theft and industrial policy (China 2025), because they are related to security. In these sphere there are your hawks and dove. And each sphere is dominated by certain interest groups. That is why US policy toward China can often appear contradictory. You have Trump want to reduce the trade deficit, but security experts advocating for restrictions on dual use technology who are buttressed by people who want export restrictions on China, as a way of getting market access.
Right now the economic concerns are most dominant, and the hawks seem to dominate. The economic hawks traditionally have been domestic manufacturing companies and economic nationalist. In reality the hawks aren't dominant, but the groups like US Companies with large investment in China and Wall Street are no longer defending China, and some have turned hawkish against China. These US companies are the main conduit in which China's lobby Congress, since China only spends 50% of what Taiwan spends lobbying Congress.
THE ANGLO SAXON WORLD AND CHINA
I don't think many Chinese even those that speak English, have a good understanding Anglo-Saxon society mindset. Anglo Saxons countries, whether US, UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Ireland are commerce driven society governed by sanctity of contracts. The English great philosophical contributions to Western philosophy have primarily to do with economics and politics like Adam Smith, John Locke, David Hume and Thomas Hobbes. This contrast with the French and Germans. Politics in the UK and to a lesser extent the US, is centered around economics, while in Mainland Europe its religion. When the Americans revolted against the British Empire in 1776, the initial source of the grievances were taxes.
Outside of East Asia, the rest of the World's relationship with China was largely commercial, and for United States, being an Anglosaxon country, even more so. In Southeast Asia, Chinese aren't known for high culture, but for trade and commerce. Outside Vietnam, most of Chinese loans words in Southeast Asian languages involve either food or money. The influence is akin to Yiddish in English.
Some people point to the Mao and Nixon meeting as great strategic breakthrough and symbol of what great power politics should look like. The reality is that the Mao-Nixon meeting was an anomaly in the long history of relations with China and the West. Much of China-Western relations over the last 500 years was conducted by multitudes of nameless Chinese and Western traders. The period from 1949-1979 was the only period were strategic concerns triumphed trade, because China had little to offer except instability and revolution. Even in this period, China's attempt to spread revolution in Southeast Asia was a threat to Western investments and corporate interest in the region. During the nadir of both the Qing Dynasty and Republican period, China was still engaged in its traditional commercial role. Throughout much of history of their relations with China, the goals of Britain and the United States were primarily economic,
IMAGINE JUST 10% OF CHINA BOUGHT MY PRODUCT
From the beginning, the allure of China to Western businesses and traders has been its sheer size I. One of the points that the USTR mentions is lack of market access for US companies operating in China, while Chinese companies face much less restrictions operating in the US.
This is supported by remarks by Henry Paulson and Charlene Barshefsky. As Paulson remarked
Trade with China has hurt some American workers. And they have expressed their grievances at the ballot box.
So while many attribute this shift to the Trump Administration, I do not. What we are now seeing will likely endure for some time within the American policy establishment. China is viewed—by a growing consensus—not just as a strategic challenge to the United States but as a country whose rise has come at America’s expense. In this environment, it would be helpful if the US-China relationship had more advocates. That it does not reflects another failure:
In large part because China has been slow to open its economy since it joined the WTO, the American business community has turned from advocate to skeptic and even opponent of past US policies toward China. American business doesn’t want a tariff war but it does want a more aggressive approach from our government. How can it be that those who know China best, work there, do business there, make money there, and have advocated for productive relations in the past, are among those now arguing for more confrontation? The answer lies in the story of stalled competition policy, and the slow pace of opening, over nearly two decades. This has discouraged and fragmented the American business community. And it has reinforced the negative attitudinal shift among our political and expert classes. In short, even though many American businesses continue to prosper in China, a growing number of firms have given up hope that the playing field will ever be level. Some have accepted the Faustian bargain of maximizing today’s earnings per share while operating under restrictions that jeopardize their future competitiveness. But that doesn’t mean they’re happy about it. Nor does it mean they aren’t acutely aware of the risks — or thinking harder than ever before about how to diversify their risks away from, and beyond, China.
What is interesting about Paulson's speech is he spend only one sentence about displaced US workers, and a whole paragraph about US business operating in China. While Kissinger writes books about China, how much does he contribute to both Democrats and the Republicans during the election cycle? China is increasingly makING it more difficult for US companies operating and those exporting products to China.

CONTINUED

submitted by weilim to IntlScholars [link] [comments]

TomoChain September Recap: All the latest September Actions!

TomoChain September Recap: All the latest September Actions!
It seems as if TomoChain has been teleporting all over the place in the month of September. You saw us presented at blockchain events all over South-East Asia, made an appearance in the U.S. exchange market, travelled back home to make proposals to the Vietnamese government, and hopped back to TomoChain’s office to perfect our products. It’s a never resting grind here in the TomoChain’s world. Let’s check out what hard work has been laid down this past month.
https://preview.redd.it/togdhc4ayvp31.png?width=5000&format=png&auto=webp&s=1137c84a7eac8c8c27e6f876f41e18597311de57
***
  • Past events
- AMA with Crypto Nation.
- AMA with Conflux – answer community’s question to learn more about Conflux’s future plans and partnership with TomoChain.
- TomoChain welcome special guests to visit our office, experience using our products and exchange international cultures.
- TomoChain Japan launched its LINE group, opening up a new information exchange platform for the community.
- TomoChain attended Singapore Consensus – Invest:Asia.
- TOMO team is excited to be invited by HashKey Group to attend Shanghai International Blockchain Week, the largest Blockchain conference in China.
- Long Vuong presented to Vietnam's Ministry of Justice about the benefits of public blockchain, suggesting a proposal to develop a regulatory legal framework to apply blockchain as a potential system for the development of Vietnam's economy.
- TomoChain’s CFO - Ms. Le Ho, was invited to attend the State Bank of Vietnam's conference about nurturing sustainable Fintech ecosystems, including blockchain in Vietnam
- Blockchain representatives in Vietnam, including TomoChain requested a ‘sandbox’ for the technology while meeting with Government agencies.
***
  • Must read/watch
- Loyalty Point on Blockchain – changing consumer’s experience in everyday life shopping. TomoChain proposes better approach which we believe will be the standard for the whole market in the foreseeable future. With TomoZ, TomoX protocols based on TomoChain, the adoption of blockchain can soon come to each consumer’s fingertips.
- Listen to Long Vuong’s opinion on how TomoChain is racing towards Crypto Mass Adoption. TomoChain continues to experiment with the right infrastructure, models and products to help catch up with the development of web 3.0, attracting more mainstream users to this technology.
- Problems business faces when applying blockchain. Integrating a new blockchain technology isn’t just “plug and play”. TomoChain has been working hard on implementing solutions for enterprises and will provide expertise for how smart contract can be built on blockchain.
- Long Vuong shared TomoChain’s exciting future in an exclusive interview with The Daily Chain. The crypto industry is still at a very early stage but the vision of building an alternative financial system and decentralized web is strong and viable. If we continue building and improving, crypto finance will continue growing the market share.

***Thank you for all your support! Let's look forward to what October will bring us! ***
submitted by alexngn201 to Tomochain [link] [comments]

Some news you may have missed out on part 104.

-Pakistan to be out of FATF's grey list by September, promises Central Bank
Islamabad will strictly implement the requirements of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) in order to get out of the money laundering grey list released by the Paris-based body, a senior official of Pakistan's Central Bank said on Wednesday. FATF had previously placed Pakistan on its watch list of countries that need to do more in relation to anti-money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism.
"The FATF challenge has be to be addressed. Pakistan has mandated upon itself to enforce the FATF plan in letter and spirit. Whatever the requirements about the FATF plan are, they will be imposed and Pakistan will be out of grey list by September 2019. FATF is a risk but we are addressing it in the right letter and spirt," said Syed Irfan Ali, executive director for Banking Policy and Regulation Group at the State Bank of Pakistan.
-NAB finds 'proof of massive money laundering' against Sharif family
The Sharif family’s troubles seem set to worsen as reports suggest the National Accountability Bureau (NAB) has found evidence of massive money laundering through which Shehbaz Sharif and his family members accumulated assets in the United Kingdom.
According to sources privy to NAB’s investigation, the illegally accumulated assets are worth Rs85 billion to Rs100 billion and were bought during Shehbaz’s tenure as Punjab chief minister.
They said the evidence found was irrefutable and showed striking similarities with the money laundering and fake accounts case against former president Asif Ali Zardari and other Pakistan Peoples Party leaders.
-US debunks Indian claims of shooting down PAF F-16
Indian claims of shooting down a Pakistan Air Force (PAF) F-16 on February 27 were debunked by US officials as all aircraft are accounted for. Pakistan invited US officials to physically count the F-16 planes after the incident. Some of the aircraft were not immediately available for inspection due to the conflict, so it took US personnel several weeks to account for all of the jets, one of the officials said.
The report stated that two US defence officials with direct knowledge of the matter said US personnel had done a count of Pakistan’s F-16s and found none missing.
-Finance minister rules out further rupee devaluation
Finance Minister Asad Umar on Friday ruled out the need for further devaluation of the Pakistani rupee as the currency stands at equilibrium. “The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has made no demand for rupee devaluation,” Umar clarified categorically while addressing at Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) through online video conference. “Today, the State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) has clarified the rupee is standing at equilibrium,” he said. Dismissing reports of further devaluation, he added: “Stop circulating rumors that Asam Umar has said rupee would depreciate to 160 or 180.”
-o
For the Centre for Social Justice (CSJ) in Lahore, Christian children have the right to study the Bible, Hindu children have the right to study the Bhagavat Gita and Buddhist children have the right to study the Vedas. Together with the People’s Commission for Minorities Rights (PCMR), the CSJ held a conference on 29 March in which they adopted a resolution entitled ‘Right to education without discrimination’ demanding the right of minorities to teach their own religion in schools, as guaranteed by Article 22 of the Pakistani Constitution. Currently, only Islam is taught in schools.
-China’s BeiDou Navigation System Will be Able to Replace GPS in Pakistan Soon
Pakistani military reliance on the US-owned Global Positioning System (GPS) will be reduced after the use of China’s Beidou satellite navigation system which is projected to achieve global coverage by 2020. This was the crux of background discussions between former military officials and telecom experts.
Beidou is the world’s fourth space-based navigation system, following GPS by the United States, GLONASS by Russia and Galileo by the European Union. According to experts, the satellite-based system plays a vital role in the modern world, especially during wartime.
-PM Imran Khan announces unprecedented 10 years development package for tribal districts
Prime Minister Imran Khan has announced a ten-year special development package for tribal districts. Addressing a big public meeting at Jamrud, Khyber district this evening, he said one hundred billion rupees will be spent on the development of tribal areas each year. He said health, education and sports facilities in tribal areas will be enhanced.
-SBP’s Forex Reserves Cross the $10 Billion Mark
The foreign exchange reserves of State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) have crossed the $10 billion mark by March-end. During the week that ended on 29 March 2019, SBP received inflows of RMB 15 billion (equivalent to US$2.2 billion) as proceeds of the loan obtained by the government of Pakistan from China. After taking into account outflows relating to external debt and other official payments, SBP reserves increased by $1.931 billion during the week.
-Benami Properties: FBR takes an unprecedented step
Federal Board of Revenue has established three Benami Zones at Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad for enforcement of Benami Transaction (Prohibition) Act, 2017. In a press release issued today (Thursday), it was said after examination of available information FBR Benami Zones Karachi and Lahore have issued show cause notices in six cases of Companies holding shares and immovable properties as Benamidar.
-Ministry of Finance proposed to amend Foreign Exchange Regulations Act in Pakistan
Ministry of Finance has proposed to amend the Foreign Exchange Regulations Act 1947 to prevent illegal foreign exchange transactions. Under the proposal, the previous act will be updated with an amendment act to empower the State Bank of Pakistan to regulate foreign exchange regime in the country more effectively.
It said proposed amendment has been approved by the Federal Cabinet and transmitted to Parliament for enactment. The measure is a part of government's efforts to enhance the transparency of financial transactions.
-KP government launches 'Pink Bus Service' exclusively for women
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa government launched on Thursday ‘Pink Bus Service’ exclusively for women in Mardan. A spokesman of the project told our Peshawar correspondent that a total of seven Pink Buses will ply in Mardan. There are fifteen bus stops each facilitated with the solar panels.
-Pakistan makes a new offer to Iran, FTA in works
Pakistan has invited Iran for talks on a free trade agreement (FTA). Pakistan has proposed that talks could be held on April 23-24 in Pakistan. The report added that lack of direct banking channel between the two countries is the main hurdle in finalizing the free trade agreement.
-Govt Mulling to Withdraw 10% FED on 1,700cc Vehicles: Abdul Razaq
The government is considering to withdraw its decision of imposing 10% federal excise duty (FED) on cars with engine capacities exceeding 1,700cc. The Senate’s Standing Committee on Industries and Production, on Wednesday, was informed that the 10 percent FED imposed on locally manufactured cars and SUVs, having engine capacity exceeding 1,700cc, would be withdrawn soon.
-Govt to Crackdown Against High Medicine Prices & Launch An Online Price Portal
The federal government has ordered a crackdown against pharmaceutical companies that are illegally increasing medicine prices. Minister for National Health Services (NHS), Aamer Mehmood Kiani, ordered an operation against such firms on Wednesday.
“Though the Drug Regulatory Authority of Pakistan (DRAP) deals with the matter, as a government representative, I consider myself responsible for providing relief to the masses and answerable to them. I am personally looking into the matter and would not tolerate an illegal and unauthorized increase in the prices of medicines,” the minister said.
-Pakistan’s First Environment Friendly Food Festival to Start on 5th April
To discourage single-use plastics and promote sustainable food consumption, WWF-Pakistan is organizing the country’s first environmental-friendly food festival in Karachi. The festival, ReFest, aims to reduce food waste and raise awareness about eating food in a responsible way as well as adopting sustainable practices in our daily lives such as reduced use of single-use plastics. The theme of the festival is to spread awareness about the cause and enjoy the festivals responsibly, as per WWF, festivals were one of the reasons of over-littering due to massive use of single-use plastic in food festivals. The idea is to promote a sense of responsibility among citizens about how we can enjoy and be responsible at the same time.
-Gilgit is Getting a Dedicated Tourism Police Division
Gilgit-Baltistan Inspector General of Police (IGP) Sanaullah Abbasi said that a special tourism force will be formed in the region to ensure the safety of national and foreign tourists. He also told that the GB government will deploy 700 personnel for the protection of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor route. The special tourism force called, “Tourism Police Division” will be set up on the model of Malaysia and Thailand.
-PM takes part in Hyderabad University’s Groundbreaking Ceremony.
The project is projected to complete within 3 years, with over Rs. 2 billion as the estimated cost. The land for building the university has been marked in Kohsar. A bill will be passed from the National Assembly for the construction of the university. The name of the university has been decided as “Federal Urdu University Hyderabad”.
-Facebook Launches Its Innovation Lab Platform in Pakistan
Facebook and Pakistan’s Ministry of Information Technology along with the National Technology Fund (IGNITE) launched the first Facebook Innovation Lab located in the National Incubation Centre (NIC) at the Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS). The launch event, held on Wednesday, April 3, 2019, was attended by several thought leaders from across the world who came together and debated on issues such as women and technology; the impact that VR has on social good and impactful ways to harness technology for social good.
-UN Adopts Pakistan Sponsored Resolution Against Islamophobia
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) unanimously adopted a resolution on Tuesday strongly condemning acts of violence and terrorism against religious minorities.mThe resolution, titled ‘Combating terrorism and other acts of violence based on religion or belief’ was moved by Turkey and co-sponsored by Pakistan.
Through this, the UNGA condemned the atrocious terrorist attack targeting Muslims during Friday prayers in two mosques at Christchurch, New Zealand this month, while offering deepest condolences to the victim families.The UN assembly called for the protection and promotion of freedom of religion and belief while developing a domestic environment of religious tolerance, respect, and peace.
-Government announces changes for new budget
With the new budget coming up, the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) government announced on Tuesday its first tax amnesty scheme on hidden domestic and offshore assets – in an attempt to boost the sinking tax revenue.
Besides, the government announced that it would stop the unchecked outflow of dollars through foreign currency accounts, declaring its intention to amend laws to link the outflows for investment with the approval of the authorities. “An asset declaration scheme will be announced before the budget,” Finance Minister Asad Umar told journalists.
-First ever Pakistani international tourism corner opens in Europe
Pakistan has opened its first International Information Tourist Corner in Belgium to offer Europeans Pakistan’s unique culture, stunning scenic view of its northern areas and the traditional lifestyle of mountain people. Launched jointly in collaboration with the Embassy of Pakistan in Brussels and Tribes, a Dutch Company established in Brussels, the tourist corner is the first-ever initiative by the Pakistani mission in Belgium to promote tourism in Pakistan
-Asad Umar hints at withdrawing tax exemptions for elite
Finance Minister Asad Umar on Tuesday hinted at withdrawing tax exemptions being availed by the elite and also announced a drastic reduction in the number of withholding taxes from the next budget including the tax on banking transactions being paid by non-filers of tax returns.
The minister expressed these views at the launching ceremony of a book, ‘Growth and Inequality in Pakistan – Agenda for Reforms’. The book has been written by Dr Hafiz A Pasha whom Umar described as Pakistan’s number one economist. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung – a German institute – has financed the book under the theme of ‘Economy of Tomorrow’. The book discusses almost every important aspect of Pakistan’s economy and carries a detailed chapter on elite capture of the state.
-PM Imran Khan to perform ground breaking of two Naya Pakistan Housing Programme sites
Prime Minister Imran Khan is expected to perform the ground-breaking ceremony of two housing projects in Islamabad and Quetta later this month. Both projects are part of PM Khan’s ambition of Naya Pakistan Housing Program (NPHP) under which he promised to deliver 500,000 low-cost residential units to the underprivileged faction of the society.
-PM Khan announces economic corridor between KP Khyber and Afghanistan
PM Imran Khan has announced formation of economic corridor between KP Khyber and Afghanistan for improving trade and economic activities in the region. PM Khan announced that he has issued directives for the Torkham border with Afghanistan to be kept open 24/7 in order to facilitate business and trade for locals.
-First woman principal appointed at K-P police training centre
A police training centre in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa’s (K-P) Mansehra has appointed a woman principal – a first for the province. Sonia Shamroz, an MBA in human resource management and an 18-grade officer, termed her appointment to the billet as a matter of great pride for her family and herself.
-Pakistan expected to get significant export orders at Istanbul fair
Pakistan Consul General in Istanbul Bilal Khan Pasha has said that the auto industry of Pakistan, especially the manufacturers of auto and tractor parts, tyres and tubes, has the potential to make inroads into the Turkish market.
“Turkish automakers and Pakistani engineering companies are negotiating to form joint ventures; in the next phase small and medium enterprises of the two countries will enter into partnerships,” Pasha said while talking to The Express Tribune on the sidelines of the Automechanica exhibition, which kicked off in Istanbul on Thursday. “This year, Pakistani companies manufacturing auto and tractor parts as well as tyre tubes are expected to get significant export orders at Automechanica, which will help increase non-traditional goods export from Pakistan to Turkey,” the consul general said.
-PM Imran urges lawmakers to share meal with homeless at govt shelters
Prime Minister Imran Khan on Saturday urged lawmakers to visit the homeless at government shelters and “share a meal with the people using them”.
The premier asserted that this practice will sensitise public representatives to issues faced by the bottom tier Pakistani society. “In the coming months I will personally monitor effectiveness of our poverty alleviation jihad,” the prime minister went on to add in a tweet.
submitted by FashBasher1 to pakistan [link] [comments]

CRYPTOCURRENCY BITCOIN

CRYPTOCURRENCY BITCOIN
Bitcoin Table of contents expand: 1. What is Bitcoin? 2. Understanding Bitcoin 3. How Bitcoin Works 4. What's a Bitcoin Worth? 5. How Bitcoin Began 6. Who Invented Bitcoin? 7. Before Satoshi 8. Why Is Satoshi Anonymous? 9. The Suspects 10. Can Satoshi's Identity Be Proven? 11. Receiving Bitcoins As Payment 12. Working For Bitcoins 13. Bitcoin From Interest Payments 14. Bitcoins From Gambling 15. Investing in Bitcoins 16. Risks of Bitcoin Investing 17. Bitcoin Regulatory Risk 18. Security Risk of Bitcoins 19. Insurance Risk 20. Risk of Bitcoin Fraud 21. Market Risk 22. Bitcoin's Tax Risk What is Bitcoin?
Bitcoin is a digital currency created in January 2009. It follows the ideas set out in a white paper by the mysterious Satoshi Nakamoto, whose true identity is yet to be verified. Bitcoin offers the promise of lower transaction fees than traditional online payment mechanisms and is operated by a decentralized authority, unlike government-issued currencies.
There are no physical bitcoins, only balances kept on a public ledger in the cloud, that – along with all Bitcoin transactions – is verified by a massive amount of computing power. Bitcoins are not issued or backed by any banks or governments, nor are individual bitcoins valuable as a commodity. Despite it not being legal tender, Bitcoin charts high on popularity, and has triggered the launch of other virtual currencies collectively referred to as Altcoins.
Understanding Bitcoin Bitcoin is a type of cryptocurrency: Balances are kept using public and private "keys," which are long strings of numbers and letters linked through the mathematical encryption algorithm that was used to create them. The public key (comparable to a bank account number) serves as the address which is published to the world and to which others may send bitcoins. The private key (comparable to an ATM PIN) is meant to be a guarded secret and only used to authorize Bitcoin transmissions. Style notes: According to the official Bitcoin Foundation, the word "Bitcoin" is capitalized in the context of referring to the entity or concept, whereas "bitcoin" is written in the lower case when referring to a quantity of the currency (e.g. "I traded 20 bitcoin") or the units themselves. The plural form can be either "bitcoin" or "bitcoins."
How Bitcoin Works Bitcoin is one of the first digital currencies to use peer-to-peer technology to facilitate instant payments. The independent individuals and companies who own the governing computing power and participate in the Bitcoin network, also known as "miners," are motivated by rewards (the release of new bitcoin) and transaction fees paid in bitcoin. These miners can be thought of as the decentralized authority enforcing the credibility of the Bitcoin network. New bitcoin is being released to the miners at a fixed, but periodically declining rate, such that the total supply of bitcoins approaches 21 million. One bitcoin is divisible to eight decimal places (100 millionths of one bitcoin), and this smallest unit is referred to as a Satoshi. If necessary, and if the participating miners accept the change, Bitcoin could eventually be made divisible to even more decimal places. Bitcoin mining is the process through which bitcoins are released to come into circulation. Basically, it involves solving a computationally difficult puzzle to discover a new block, which is added to the blockchain and receiving a reward in the form of a few bitcoins. The block reward was 50 new bitcoins in 2009; it decreases every four years. As more and more bitcoins are created, the difficulty of the mining process – that is, the amount of computing power involved – increases. The mining difficulty began at 1.0 with Bitcoin's debut back in 2009; at the end of the year, it was only 1.18. As of February 2019, the mining difficulty is over 6.06 billion. Once, an ordinary desktop computer sufficed for the mining process; now, to combat the difficulty level, miners must use faster hardware like Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC), more advanced processing units like Graphic Processing Units (GPUs), etc.
What's a Bitcoin Worth? In 2017 alone, the price of Bitcoin rose from a little under $1,000 at the beginning of the year to close to $19,000, ending the year more than 1,400% higher. Bitcoin's price is also quite dependent on the size of its mining network since the larger the network is, the more difficult – and thus more costly – it is to produce new bitcoins. As a result, the price of bitcoin has to increase as its cost of production also rises. The Bitcoin mining network's aggregate power has more than tripled over the past twelve months.
How Bitcoin Began
Aug. 18, 2008: The domain name bitcoin.org is registered. Today, at least, this domain is "WhoisGuard Protected," meaning the identity of the person who registered it is not public information.
Oct. 31, 2008: Someone using the name Satoshi Nakamoto makes an announcement on The Cryptography Mailing list at metzdowd.com: "I've been working on a new electronic cash system that's fully peer-to-peer, with no trusted third party. The paper is available at http://www.bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf." This link leads to the now-famous white paper published on bitcoin.org entitled "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System." This paper would become the Magna Carta for how Bitcoin operates today.
Jan. 3, 2009: The first Bitcoin block is mined, Block 0. This is also known as the "genesis block" and contains the text: "The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks," perhaps as proof that the block was mined on or after that date, and perhaps also as relevant political commentary.
Jan. 8, 2009: The first version of the Bitcoin software is announced on The Cryptography Mailing list.
Jan. 9, 2009: Block 1 is mined, and Bitcoin mining commences in earnest.
Who Invented Bitcoin?
No one knows. Not conclusively, at any rate. Satoshi Nakamoto is the name associated with the person or group of people who released the original Bitcoin white paper in 2008 and worked on the original Bitcoin software that was released in 2009. The Bitcoin protocol requires users to enter a birthday upon signup, and we know that an individual named Satoshi Nakamoto registered and put down April 5 as a birth date. And that's about it.
Before Satoshi
Though it is tempting to believe the media's spin that Satoshi Nakamoto is a solitary, quixotic genius who created Bitcoin out of thin air, such innovations do not happen in a vacuum. All major scientific discoveries, no matter how original-seeming, were built on previously existing research. There are precursors to Bitcoin: Adam Back’s Hashcash, invented in 1997, and subsequently Wei Dai’s b-money, Nick Szabo’s bit gold and Hal Finney’s Reusable Proof of Work. The Bitcoin white paper itself cites Hashcash and b-money, as well as various other works spanning several research fields.
Why Is Satoshi Anonymous?
There are two primary motivations for keeping Bitcoin's inventor keeping his or her or their identity secret. One is privacy. As Bitcoin has gained in popularity – becoming something of a worldwide phenomenon – Satoshi Nakamoto would likely garner a lot of attention from the media and from governments.
The other reason is safety. Looking at 2009 alone, 32,489 blocks were mined; at the then-reward rate of 50 BTC per block, the total payout in 2009 was 1,624,500 BTC, which at today’s prices is over $900 million. One may conclude that only Satoshi and perhaps a few other people were mining through 2009 and that they possess a majority of that $900 million worth of BTC. Someone in possession of that much BTC could become a target of criminals, especially since bitcoins are less like stocks and more like cash, where the private keys needed to authorize spending could be printed out and literally kept under a mattress. While it's likely the inventor of Bitcoin would take precautions to make any extortion-induced transfers traceable, remaining anonymous is a good way for Satoshi to limit exposure.
The Suspects
Numerous people have been suggested as possible Satoshi Nakamoto by major media outlets. Oct. 10, 2011, The New Yorker published an article speculating that Nakamoto might be Irish cryptography student Michael Clear or economic sociologist Vili Lehdonvirta. A day later, Fast Company suggested that Nakamoto could be a group of three people – Neal King, Vladimir Oksman and Charles Bry – who together appear on a patent related to secure communications that were filed two months before bitcoin.org was registered. A Vice article published in May 2013 added more suspects to the list, including Gavin Andresen, the Bitcoin project’s lead developer; Jed McCaleb, co-founder of now-defunct Bitcoin exchange Mt. Gox; and famed Japanese mathematician Shinichi Mochizuki.
In December 2013, Techcrunch published an interview with researcher Skye Grey who claimed textual analysis of published writings shows a link between Satoshi and bit-gold creator Nick Szabo. And perhaps most famously, in March 2014, Newsweek ran a cover article claiming that Satoshi is actually an individual named Satoshi Nakamoto – a 64-year-old Japanese-American engineer living in California. The list of suspects is long, and all the individuals deny being Satoshi.
Can Satoshi's Identity Be Proven?
It would seem even early collaborators on the project don’t have verifiable proof of Satoshi’s identity. To reveal conclusively who Satoshi Nakamoto is, a definitive link would need to be made between his/her activity with Bitcoin and his/her identity. That could come in the form of linking the party behind the domain registration of bitcoin.org, email and forum accounts used by Satoshi Nakamoto, or ownership of some portion of the earliest mined bitcoins. Even though the bitcoins Satoshi likely possesses are traceable on the blockchain, it seems he/she has yet to cash them out in a way that reveals his/her identity. If Satoshi were to move his/her bitcoins to an exchange today, this might attract attention, but it seems unlikely that a well-funded and successful exchange would betray a customer's privacy.
Receiving Bitcoins As Payment
Bitcoins can be accepted as a means of payment for products sold or services provided. If you have a brick and mortar store, just display a sign saying “Bitcoin Accepted Here” and many of your customers may well take you up on it; the transactions can be handled with the requisite hardware terminal or wallet address through QR codes and touch screen apps. An online business can easily accept bitcoins by just adding this payment option to the others it offers, like credit cards, PayPal, etc. Online payments will require a Bitcoin merchant tool (an external processor like Coinbase or BitPay).
Working For Bitcoins
Those who are self-employed can get paid for a job in bitcoins. There are several websites/job boards which are dedicated to the digital currency:
Work For Bitcoin brings together work seekers and prospective employers through its websiteCoinality features jobs – freelance, part-time and full-time – that offer payment in bitcoins, as well as Dogecoin and LitecoinJobs4Bitcoins, part of reddit.comBitGigs
Bitcoin From Interest Payments
Another interesting way (literally) to earn bitcoins is by lending them out and being repaid in the currency. Lending can take three forms – direct lending to someone you know; through a website which facilitates peer-to-peer transactions, pairing borrowers and lenders; or depositing bitcoins in a virtual bank that offers a certain interest rate for Bitcoin accounts. Some such sites are Bitbond, BitLendingClub, and BTCjam. Obviously, you should do due diligence on any third-party site.
Bitcoins From Gambling
It’s possible to play at casinos that cater to Bitcoin aficionados, with options like online lotteries, jackpots, spread betting, and other games. Of course, the pros and cons and risks that apply to any sort of gambling and betting endeavors are in force here too.
Investing in Bitcoins
There are many Bitcoin supporters who believe that digital currency is the future. Those who endorse it are of the view that it facilitates a much faster, no-fee payment system for transactions across the globe. Although it is not itself any backed by any government or central bank, bitcoin can be exchanged for traditional currencies; in fact, its exchange rate against the dollar attracts potential investors and traders interested in currency plays. Indeed, one of the primary reasons for the growth of digital currencies like Bitcoin is that they can act as an alternative to national fiat money and traditional commodities like gold.
In March 2014, the IRS stated that all virtual currencies, including bitcoins, would be taxed as property rather than currency. Gains or losses from bitcoins held as capital will be realized as capital gains or losses, while bitcoins held as inventory will incur ordinary gains or losses.
Like any other asset, the principle of buying low and selling high applies to bitcoins. The most popular way of amassing the currency is through buying on a Bitcoin exchange, but there are many other ways to earn and own bitcoins. Here are a few options which Bitcoin enthusiasts can explore.
Risks of Bitcoin Investing
Though Bitcoin was not designed as a normal equity investment (no shares have been issued), some speculative investors were drawn to the digital money after it appreciated rapidly in May 2011 and again in November 2013. Thus, many people purchase bitcoin for its investment value rather than as a medium of exchange.
However, their lack of guaranteed value and digital nature means the purchase and use of bitcoins carries several inherent risks. Many investor alerts have been issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB), and other agencies.
The concept of a virtual currency is still novel and, compared to traditional investments, Bitcoin doesn't have much of a long-term track record or history of credibility to back it. With their increasing use, bitcoins are becoming less experimental every day, of course; still, after eight years, they (like all digital currencies) remain in a development phase, still evolving. "It is pretty much the highest-risk, highest-return investment that you can possibly make,” says Barry Silbert, CEO of Digital Currency Group, which builds and invests in Bitcoin and blockchain companies.
Bitcoin Regulatory Risk
Investing money into Bitcoin in any of its many guises is not for the risk-averse. Bitcoins are a rival to government currency and may be used for black market transactions, money laundering, illegal activities or tax evasion. As a result, governments may seek to regulate, restrict or ban the use and sale of bitcoins, and some already have. Others are coming up with various rules. For example, in 2015, the New York State Department of Financial Services finalized regulations that would require companies dealing with the buy, sell, transfer or storage of bitcoins to record the identity of customers, have a compliance officer and maintain capital reserves. The transactions worth $10,000 or more will have to be recorded and reported.
Although more agencies will follow suit, issuing rules and guidelines, the lack of uniform regulations about bitcoins (and other virtual currency) raises questions over their longevity, liquidity, and universality.
Security Risk of Bitcoins
Bitcoin exchanges are entirely digital and, as with any virtual system, are at risk from hackers, malware and operational glitches. If a thief gains access to a Bitcoin owner's computer hard drive and steals his private encryption key, he could transfer the stolen Bitcoins to another account. (Users can prevent this only if bitcoins are stored on a computer which is not connected to the internet, or else by choosing to use a paper wallet – printing out the Bitcoin private keys and addresses, and not keeping them on a computer at all.) Hackers can also target Bitcoin exchanges, gaining access to thousands of accounts and digital wallets where bitcoins are stored. One especially notorious hacking incident took place in 2014, when Mt. Gox, a Bitcoin exchange in Japan, was forced to close down after millions of dollars worth of bitcoins were stolen.
This is particularly problematic once you remember that all Bitcoin transactions are permanent and irreversible. It's like dealing with cash: Any transaction carried out with bitcoins can only be reversed if the person who has received them refunds them. There is no third party or a payment processor, as in the case of a debit or credit card – hence, no source of protection or appeal if there is a problem.
Insurance Risk
Some investments are insured through the Securities Investor Protection Corporation. Normal bank accounts are insured through the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) up to a certain amount depending on the jurisdiction. Bitcoin exchanges and Bitcoin accounts are not insured by any type of federal or government program.
Risk of Bitcoin Fraud
While Bitcoin uses private key encryption to verify owners and register transactions, fraudsters and scammers may attempt to sell false bitcoins. For instance, in July 2013, the SEC brought legal action against an operator of a Bitcoin-related Ponzi scheme.
Market Risk
Like with any investment, Bitcoin values can fluctuate. Indeed, the value of the currency has seen wild swings in price over its short existence. Subject to high volume buying and selling on exchanges, it has a high sensitivity to “news." According to the CFPB, the price of bitcoins fell by 61% in a single day in 2013, while the one-day price drop in 2014 has been as big as 80%.
If fewer people begin to accept Bitcoin as a currency, these digital units may lose value and could become worthless. There is already plenty of competition, and though Bitcoin has a huge lead over the other 100-odd digital currencies that have sprung up, thanks to its brand recognition and venture capital money, a technological break-through in the form of a better virtual coin is always a threat.
Bitcoin's Tax Risk
As bitcoin is ineligible to be included in any tax-advantaged retirement accounts, there are no good, legal options to shield investments from taxation.
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Related Terms
Satoshi
The satoshi is the smallest unit of the bitcoin cryptocurrency. It is named after Satoshi Nakamoto, the creator of the protocol used in block chains and the bitcoin cryptocurrency.
Chartalism Chartalism is a non-mainstream theory of money that emphasizes the impact of government policies and activities on the value of money.
Satoshi Nakamoto The name used by the unknown creator of the protocol used in the bitcoin cryptocurrency. Satoshi Nakamoto is closely-associated with blockchain technology.
Bitcoin Mining, Explained Breaking down everything you need to know about Bitcoin Mining, from Blockchain and Block Rewards to Proof-of-Work and Mining Pools.
Understanding Bitcoin Unlimited Bitcoin Unlimited is a proposed upgrade to Bitcoin Core that allows larger block sizes. The upgrade is designed to improve transaction speed through scale.
Blockchain Explained
A guide to help you understand what blockchain is and how it can be used by industries. You've probably encountered a definition like this: “blockchain is a distributed, decentralized, public ledger." But blockchain is easier to understand than it sounds.
Top 6 Books to Learn About Bitcoin About UsAdvertiseContactPrivacy PolicyTerms of UseCareers Investopedia is part of the Dotdash publishing family.The Balance Lifewire TripSavvy The Spruceand more
By Satoshi Nakamoto
Read it once, go read other crypto stuff, read it again… keep doing this until the whole document makes sense. It’ll take a while, but you’ll get there. This is the original whitepaper introducing and explaining Bitcoin, and there’s really nothing better out there to understand on the subject.
“What is needed is an electronic payment system based on cryptographic proof instead of trust, allowing any two willing parties to transact directly with each other without the need for a trusted third party

submitted by adrian_morrison to BlockchainNews [link] [comments]

You can use TD Ameritrade's real-time equity data for free, for paper trading without the 20-minute delay.

In case people didn't know, if you use a platform which "contains" a paper trading acccount, rather than relying on the TOS platform entirely, you can take advantage of the free real-time US equity data for paper trading. So to keep this simple you can get NinjaTrader for free here, it's generally considered a free platform for those who didn't know. https://ninjatrader.com/FreeLiveData When you get NT through this method, you can pick Futures or Forex data. You can go back and fill out each one if you'd like say, do Futures first (that'll be through CQG and give you a lot of data for 7 days or 14, I can't recall) and the Forex through FXCM. Regardless, you don't have to use either one if you don't want. After that you'll be able to download NT installer, I always go with NinjaTrader 8, it works well. Rather than 7, that is.
Simply click "connections" in the main panel once it's open, and add a TD Ameritrade connection with the same login/pass you'd use to login to TOS or your TD/AT online account.
One important thing to note: If you want tick data, at the least NinjaTrader will say give you 10 tick, 2, 1 tick or even intervals like 1s (literally type 1s or 10s or 1t 3t 10t etc and hit enter when you have a chart open) but I believe it's derived from the bar data, if that makes sense. Also if you're viewing anything less than the 1 minute bar timeframe, itll just start off at the time you've opened the chart with such tick/second/range/interval data, and no historical on the chart. So if I'm doing that I like to open a second chart in another tab of the same instrument to show the historical data.
So the paper trading account is within the NT platform, and so long as you make sure you have set up your default account to be say Sim101, the usual name of the default paper trading account, you won't be actually executing trades through the TD Ameritrade broker, but you get to trade on real-time data.
Between this being free data, the possibility of using Rithmic, CQG and FXCM trials for futures and forex, you can get basically all free data. For a paper trader like me, that's nice because I have no skin the game... I think that's the saying.
Keep in mind I'm not promoting NinjaTrader in any commercial capacity and have no affiliation with them whatsoever as a company or in any manner I can conceive. There's one other platform I use which isn't free that's compatible with TD Ameritrade's data and that's called MotiveWave. It also does support simulated trading very very well. I suggest checking it out and I'll just say Google MotiveWaveTM 4.2.8 Ultimate Edition ;) Hope this isn't just old news everyone here has known. If so, let me know. Happy trading and hope this coming trading week is a good one.
Edit: Some other resources which at least have free trials available without necessarily needing any payment info I find useful are: 1) www.livesquawk.com (Especially Steve K's market signals... I've only heard of McAffe's signals but never tried them, however Steve K is a good guy and seems to really know what he's doing. Tl;dr, they work for me in paper trading).
2) https://www.tradethenews.com - you need a linkedin with 5 or more connections to get the free trial but they have a great squawk service with a guy from NYC who seems to be on literally almost 24 hours a day 5 days a week.
3) https://pro.benzinga.com - a Bloomberg Terminal alternative basically, but not as fancy... for more fancy see:
4) http://www.metastock.com/fundsoft4 This one isn't really explained the best on their own site, in my opinion but I've been using the free 30 day trial and what it is, is Metastock's own way of selling Reuters Eikon service. Eikon is about the best Bloomberg Terminal alternative I've found yet in many years of searching. I'm more into looking at data and figuring out how plats work than the actual trading in some ways. Important note on this one: Once you do have a trial, and they take a little while to rubber stamp it so be patient with the emails they send, you can login through the regular Reuters Eikon web login if you wish rather than using the Windows standalone program. They're the same one's just web-baed.
5) Lastly for now, https://www.money.net - definitely worth checking out. Has it's own live squawk for news during trading hours and definitely no payment info needed for a trial. You can login once trial acquired via login.money.net or the now 'legacy' installable platform. They're both good but I'm not crazy about the iOS/Android versions at all.
submitted by FraterThelemaSucks to stocks [link] [comments]

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Cash Forex Group - Up to 15% a Week? Really??? (English)

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